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Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling: An Introduction to Practical Applications

Rod Barratt 
Earthscan  2001  



Hardback  140pp  ISBN 9781853836428      £95.00
Ambient air quality has improved significantly since the middle of the 20th century, but air quality management remains a priority to reduce the impact of air pollution on public health and to meet targets set by legislation. Atmospheric dispersion models can be cost-effective tools which complement monitoring in air quality management programmes. They are also invaluable in emergency planning for dealing with instantaneous releases from industrial and other sources of contaminants.

This concise introductory handbook outlines the key characteristics and general principles of modelling, and how these translate into practical modelling tools. It introduces several types of model used for air quality management, presents the skills necessary for using simple dispersion models, guides the reader through the interpretation of results drawn from computer models of real problems, identifies limitations of dispersion models and offers guidelines for good practice.

With extensive examples and illustrations of the software, and including exercises and solutions, this is an essential tool for planners, engineers, policy makers and businesses. It will also be useful to students on environmental science courses in which modelling is a component.

CONTENTS

List of Illustrations
Acknowledgements
Summary
About the Author
Acronyms and Abbreviations

CHAPTER 1 WHY MODEL AIR QUALITY?
Why Model?
A Complement to Monitoring
Satisfying Legal Pressures
Environmental Assessment Levels
Wider Pressures
Environmental Management Systems
Public Information

CHAPTER 2 TYPES OF MODEL
Model Types
Mathematical Model Development

Conclusion

CHAPTER 3 UNDERSTANDING THE ATMOSPHERE
Air Quality
The Effect of Averaging Time
Physical Characteristics of the Atmosphere
Reading a Weather Map
Lapse Rate
Identifying Atmospheric Stability
Wind Direction and Speed
The Atmospheric Boundary Layer
The Monin-Obukhov Length
Terrain Influences
Conclusion
Exercises

CHAPTER 4 EMISSION INVENTORIES
Source Data
Conclusion

CHAPTER 5 GAUSSIAN PLUME DISPERSION MODELS
A Frame of Reference
Gaussian Plume Models
The Gaussion Dispersion Coefficients
The Effective Stack Height, H
Conclusion
Exercises

CHAPTER 6 SIMPLE MODELLING FOR POINT AND MOBILE SOURCES Screening
Screening
Traffic Pollution in City Streets
Conclusion
Exercises

CHAPTER 7 REFINED COMPUTER MODELS
Refined Dispersion Models
Improving Visualisation of Output
Conclusion
Exercises

CHAPTER 8 MODELLING EMERGENCY RELEASES
Computer Modelling for Emergency Releases
Conclusion
Exercises

CHAPTER 9 SOME PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS
Intrinsic Uncertainty of Concentration in Modelling
How Models Match Reality
Validating Models
Long Range Dispersion Model Evaluation - ETEX
Conclusion

CHAPTER 10 MODELLING GUIDELINES
Resource Requirements for Dispersion Studies
A Practical Approach to Dispersion Modelling
Receptors
UK Guidelines
US Guidelines
European Union Initiatives
Conclusion

APPENDIX 1 AIR QUALITY STANDARDS
Concentration Conversions
APPENDIX 2 LAND USE CATEGORIES
APPENDIX 3 SELECTED MODEL SUMMARIES
APPENDIX 4 SELECTED SOURCES OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
APPENDIX 5 WEB ADDRESSES
APPENDIX 6 SOLUTIONS TO EXERCISES
APPENDIX 7 GLOSSARY
INDEX

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Earthscan : atmosphere and air pollution : environmental impact : environmental protection : environmental science : modelling, computer & mathematical : process engineering : waste treatment

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