The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety: Reconciling Trade in Biotechnology with Environment and Development?

Edited by Christoph Bail, Robert Faulkner and Helen Marquard 
Earthscan  2002  

Softcover  598pp  ISBN 9781853838408      £43.00
'The Cartagena Protocol has been hailed as a significant step forward, a major millennial milestone that provides an international regulatory framework to reconcile the respective needs of trade on the one hand and environmental protection on the other, with respect to one of the fastest-growing global industries - biotechnology -
From the Foreword by KLAUS TÖPFER, United Nations Under-Secretary General, Executive Director, United Nations Environment Programme

Modern biotechnology - the controversial manipulation of genes in living organisms - has far-reaching implications for agriculture, human health, trade and the environment. The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity sets out international rules and mechanisms for ensuring adequate protection in the handling, transport, use and release of living modified organisms.

This volume is a comprehensive review of the protocol and the process that led to its adoption. It includes contributions from many of the key stakeholders and negotiators and analyses the commercial and political interests at stake, the operations and implications of the protocol and prospects for the future.


Foreword by Klaus Töpfer
About the authors
Chronology of events

Part I: Background: the road to the Cartagena Protocol and beyond
1 Negotiating the biosafety protocol: the international process Robert Falkner
2 The road to the biosafety protocol Hamdallah Zedan
3 A mandate for a biosafety protocol: the Jakarta negotiations Antonio G. M. La Vina
4 The Biosafety Working Group (BSWG) process: a personal account from the chair Veit Köster
5 The extraordinary meeting of the Conference of the Parties (ExCOP) Christián Samper
6 The follow-up process and the Intergovernmental Committee for the Cartagena Protocol (ICCP) Philemon Yang
7 Scientific aspects of the biosafety debate Helmut Gaugitsch

Part II: The making of the protocol: actors€ perspectives on the negotiations

Miami Group

8 United States Cathleen A. Enright
9 Canada Richard Ballhor

Like-Minded Group
10 Ethiopia Tewolde B. G. Egziabher
11 Jamaica Elaine Fisher
12 Brazil Arthur H. Villanova Nogueira
13 Philippines Bernarditas C. Muller
14 Seychelles John Nevill
15 Iran Mohammad Reza Salamat
16 China Cai Lijie

European Union
17 European Union Christoph Bail, Jean Paul Decaestecker and Matthias Jorgensen

Compromise Group
18 Switzerland Beat Nobs
19 Norway Birthe Ivars
20 Japan Kiyo Akasaka
21 Mexico Amanda Gálvez

Central and Eastern Europe
22 Central and Eastern Europe Gábor Nechay

Environment ministers: political perspectives on the final negotiations
23 Colombia Juan Mayr
24 United Kingdom Michael Meacher
25 Canada David Anderson
26 European Commission Margot Wallström

Environmental NGOs
27 Greenpeace International Louise Gale
28 Third World Network Gurdial Singh Nijar
29 Environment Business & Development Group Richard Tapper

30 Global Industry Coalition Laura M. Reifschneider

Part III: Key elements of the protocol
31 Definitions Piet van der Meer
32 Scope Helen Marquard
33 Advance informed agreement procedures Eric Schoonejans
34 Commodities François Pythoud
35 Risk assessment Robert Andrén and Bill Parish
36 Documentation Johan Bodegard
37 Capacity-building and the Biosafety Clearing-House John Herity
38 Non-parties Kate Cook
39 Socio-economic considerations Rajen Habib Khwaja
40 Liability and redress Worku Damena
41 Liability: €No Liability, No Protocol€ Kate Cook
42 The financial mechanism John W. Ashe
43 Legal and institutional issues Katharina Kummer
44 Annexes Gert Willemse
45 The precautionary principle Laurence Graff
46 The relationship with other international agreements: an EU perspective Margarida Afonso
47 The relationship with other agreements: much ado about a savings clause Sabrina Safrin

Part IV: Implications for environment, trade and development: an assessment
48 Prospects for international environmental law Ruth Mackenzie and Philippe Sands
49 Implications for trade law and policy: towards convergence and integration Thomas Cottier
50 The significance of the protocol for WTO dispute settlement Robert Howse and Joshua Meltzer
51 A developing-country perspective Amarjeet Ahuja
52 The Global Environment Facility and the protocol Avani Vaish
53 Conclusion Christoph Bail, Robert Falkner and Helen Marquard

Part V: Appendices
A1 Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity: full text
A2 Protocol on biosafety: draft negotiation text (excerpts)
A3 Article 19 of the Convention on Biological Diversity (1992): handling of biotechnology and distribution of its benefits
A4 The €Jakarta mandate€ (1995): decision II/5 of the Conference of the Parties
A5 Further reading on international biosafety


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