Air Pollution, People, and Plants
Sagar V. Krupa
This text is an introduction to the interrelationships of the atmosphere, air quality, people, and plants.
Ideal as a textbook, it makes an excellent guide to this important topic for a wide audience that includes
anyone interested in environmental change, climactic change, or natural resource management.
hardcover 197 pages, 27 color photos, 31 b+w illus ISBN 0890541752
The author draws on his career of more than 25 years of scientific research to present a multidisciplinary
approach to the interactions of the atmosphere and the biosphere. This approach combines science, historical
accounts, and an examination of issues that span pollution control, technology, education, health, agriculture,
forests, and international issues.
Interesting and easy-to-read, this text offers a wide-ranging account that extends from the pre-industrial
era to the present, and it includes case histories of Los Angeles, London, and Mexico City. Emphasizing the
international dimensions of this subject, the author offers clear explanations of scientific and technical concepts,
significant historical events, social factors, and key issues like global warming and acid rain.
Readers will find all the background information needed for a well-rounded understanding of the many
different ways in which the atmosphere and the biosphere interact. Included are a glossary of technical terms,
notes within each chapter, and color pictures, including images that illustrate how to detect air pollution injury in
plants as an early sign of poor air quality.
- The earth's atmosphere.
- The impact of human activities on the atmosphere.
- The effects of poor air quality on crops, forests, and human health.
- The history of air pollution from the nomads to the present.
- The sources and types of air pollution
- The transport of air pollution across national and international boundaries.
- Phenomena such as acid rain and global climate change.
- How to control air pollution.
- International concerns, including differences between developed and developing nations.
Table of Contents
Note to the Reader; Chapter 1: The Atmosphere; Introduction; Relationships Between Physical and Chemical Factors of the Atmosphere; References; Further Reading; Chapter 2: Nature, Types, Sources and Ambient Concentrations of Air Pollutants; Introduction; Sources of Primary Pollutants in the Atmosphere; Sources of Secondary Pollutants in the Atmosphere; Gases; Particulate Matter; Ambient Concentrations of Air Pollutants; References; Further Reading; Chapter 3: An Historical Perspective of Air Quality; Introduction; Before the Industrial Revolution; The Industrial Revolution; The Twentieth Century; 1900-25; 1925-50; 1950-70; The 1970s; The 1980s and the Early 1990s; The Fog of London, and the Smog of Los Angeles and Mexico City: A Brief Analysis; "London" (Sulfurous) Fog; "Los Angeles" (Photochemical) Smog; "Mexico City" (Photochemical) Smog; References; Further Reading; Chapter 4: Transport of Air Pollution Across Regional, National, and International Boundaries; Introduction; Long-range Transport of Ozone
and Fine Particles; Acidic Precipitation (Rain); A Brief Analysis of the "Acidic Rain" Phenomenon; References; Further Reading; Chapter 5: Air Pollution and Global Climate Change; Introduction; The Processes and Products in Global Climate Change; A Brief Assessment; References; Further Reading; Chapter 6: Air Quality and Human Health; Introduction; Health Effects of Some Air Pollutants; Carbon Monoxide; Ozone; Oxides of Nitrogen Hydrocarbons; Sulfur Dioxide; Particulate Matter Lead; Minor Air Pollutants Hazardous to Human Health; Arsenic; Asbestos; Benzene; Beryllium; Mercury; Vinyl Chloride; Pesticides; A Brief Assessment; References; Further Reading; Chapter 7: Air Quality and Crops; Introduction; Crop Effects of Select Air Pollutants Ozone; Sulfur Dioxide; Hydrogen Fluoride; Peroxyacetyl; Nitrate; Ethylene; Lead, Trace Metals and Organic Pollutants; Crop Responses to Multiple Air Pollutants; Crop Responses to Global Climate Change; A Brief Assessment; References; Further Reading; Chapter 8: Air Quality and
Forests; Introduction; History of Forest Damage Recent Forest Damage; Damage in North America; Damage in Europe; Eastern Europe; Nordic Countries; Impacts of Air Pollutants on Forest Ecosystems: An Integrated Analysis, with Emphasis on Ozone; Effects on Tree Physiological Processes in Artificial Exposures; Forest and Tree Responses to O3 Under Field Conditions; Ozone and Inter- and Intra- Species Sensitivity and Competition for Growth Resources; Responses of Forest and Woodland Ecosystem: Components and Processes; Energy Flows Through Ecosystems Litter Dynamics and Nutrient Cycling; Leaf-fall, Litter Accumulation and Decomposition; Foliage and Root Storage of Nutrients; Foliage Leaching of Nutrients; Nutrient Condition of Trees and Their Response to Ozone; Moisture Flows Through Ecosystems; Microbial Consumers and Diseases of Forest Primary Producers; Invertebrate Consumers Vertebrate and Wildlife Consumers; Landscape Level Ecological Responses; References; Further Reading; Chapter 9: Control Strategies for A
ir Pollution; Introduction; Air Pollution Control Through Process or Engineering Technology; Air Pollution Control Strategies for Mobile Sources (Motor Vehicles); Crankcase Emissions Carburetor and Fuel Tank Emissions; Carbon Monoxide and Hydrocarbons; Oxides of Nitrogen; Spark Ignition Timing; Air-Fuel Compression Ratio; Exhaust Gas Recirculation; Air Pollution Control Strategies for Stationary Sources; Modification of Plant Operating Procedures; Use of Tall Stacks; Particle Collection Systems; Cyclones; Filtration; Electrostatic Precipitation; Wet Scrubbing: Open Spray Tower; Venturi Scrubber; Combustion: Direct Flame Incineration; Thermal Incineration; Catalytic Incineration; Adsorption; Absorption; Sulfur Oxides Control Systems; Coal Beneficiation; Solvent Refining; Coal Gasification and Liquifaction; Fluidized-Bed Combustion; Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD): Lime/Limestone Slurry; Dry Scrubbing Systems; Air Pollution Control Through Government Regulation; Emission Standards; Air Quality Standards Versus C
ritical Levels; Emission Taxes; Cost-Benefit Analyses; A Brief Assessment; References; Further Reading; Chapter 10: Education, Research and Technology Transfer: An International Perspective for the Preservation of Air Quality; Introduction; Mitigation as a Strategy for Improving Air Quality; Adaptation as a Strategy for Improving Air Quality; Prevention as a Strategy for Improving Air Quality; A Growing Concern for Poor Air Quality and Its Impacts on Human Health; Global Climate Change Versus Global Change; The Balancing Act of Surplus and Deficit Food Production and Supply Across the World; A Need to Preserve Biological Diversity; A Critical Need for Environmental Literacy; Opportunities for International Cooperation; A Brief Assessment of the Limitations; References; Further Reading; Appendices; Definitions of Technical Terms; Subject Index
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