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Handbook of Polymers in Paper Conservation

Elisabetta Princi 
RAPRA  November 2011  



Soft cover  300 pp  ISBN 9781847355805      £95.00


Hard cover  300 pp  ISBN 9781847355799      £120.00
Handbook of Polymers in Paper Conservation describes the latest developments in paper conservation by using polymeric materials. A short introduction on polymer chemistry is given to highlight the polymer characteristics and properties. The book is then dedicated to the conservative problems and issues in the field of paper artworks.

This practical book identifies the importance of each type of polymer, related to its nature and properties, from the point of view of paper conservation. With the help of schemes and tables, the polymers are classified in terms of characteristics and final uses in respect to this very complex material.

Contents

1. What is a Polymer?
1.1 Introduction, 1.2 A Little Bit of History, 1.3 Polymer Synthesis, 1.4 Polymer Structure, 1.4.1 Constitution and Configuration 1.4.2 Conformation, 1.5 Crystalline and Amorphous Polymers, 1.6 Thermal Properties, 1.7 Mechanical Properties of Polymers, 1.8 Copolymers, 1.9 Polymer Blending, 1.10 Elastomers, 1.11 Polymer Degradation

2 Paper: A Very Complex Material
2.1 The Evolution of Papermaking Over the Centuries, 2.2 Traditional Production of a Hand-made Paper Sheet, 2.3 Raw Materials Used Nowadays in Papermaking, 2.4 Paper Components, 2.4.1 Cellulose, 2.4.2 Hemicellulose, 2.4.3 Lignin, 2.4.4 Pectin, 2.4.5 Sizing, 2.4.5.1 Gelatin, 2.4.5.2 Rosin Emulsion Size, 2.4.5.3 Alum, 2.4.5.4 Alkenylsuccinic Anhydride, 2.4.5.5 Alkylketene Dimer, 2.4.6 Fillers, 2.4.6.1 Ground Calcium Carbonate, 2.4.6.2 Precipitated Calcium Carbonate, 2.4.6.3 Chalk, 2.4.6.4 Clay (Kaolin), 2.4.6.5 Barium Sulfate, 2.4.7 Chemical Additives, 2.4.7.1 Dyes, 2.4.7.2 Pigments, 2.4.8 Inks [12]: The Traditional Scene, 2.4.8.1 Writing Inks, 2.4.8.2 Printing Inks, 2.4.9 Printing Inks : The Present-day Position

3. Why Does Paper Degrade?
3.1 Introduction, 3.2 Factors Promoting Paper Degradation, 3.2.1 Acid Hydrolysis, 3.2.2 Humidity and Temperature, 3.2.3 Light, 3.2.4 Chemical Causes of Deterioration in the Atmosphere, 3.2.5 Oxidative Degradation 3.2.6 Biological Factors, 3.2.6.1 Bibliophagous Insects, 3.2.6.2 Micro-organisms, 3.2.7 Other Causes of Damage, 3.3 Indications of Damage, 3.3.1 Colour Change , 3.3.2 Foxing, 3.3.3 Tide Lines, 3.3.4 Mould and Insects, 3.3.5 Flaking of Paint and Ink, 3.3.6 Cockling, 3.3.7 Mechanical Wear and Tear, 3.4 Ink Corrosion

4. Conservation of Artworks on Paper
4.1 Introduction, 4.2 The Science of Conservation, 4.3 Paper Conservation, 4.4 The Main Steps in Paper Conservation, 4.4.1 Assessment of Causes of Deterioration, 4.4.2 The Approach to Preservation, 4.4.3 Intervention

5 Materials Investigation
5.1 Introduction, 5.2 Methods for the Evaluation of Paper Properties, 5.2.1 Evaluation of Mechanical Properties, 5.2.1.1 Folding Endurance, 5.2.1.2 Tensile Properties, 5.2.1.3 Tear Resistance, 5.2.1.4 Bursting Strength, 5.2.1.5 Tensile Post-fold, 5.2.2 Evaluation of Chemical Properties, 5.2.2.1 Determination of Degree of Polymerisation, 5.2.2.2 Determination of pH, 5.2.2.3 Raman and Infrared Spectroscopy, 5.2.2.4 X-Ray Diffraction, 5.2.2.5 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, 5.2.3 Evaluation of Physicochemical Properties, 5.2.3.1 Optical Properties - Colorimetry, 5.2.3.2 Optical Microscopy , 5.2.3.3 Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Microanalysis, 5.2.3.4 X-Ray Fluorescence, 5.2.4 Other Methods, 5.2.4.1 Thermal Analysis , 5.2.4.2 Fluorescence, 5.2.4.3 Volatile Organic Compounds, 5.2.4.4 Chemiluminescence, 5.2.4.5 Other Methods, 5.3 Techniques for Characterising Polymeric Materials, 5.3.1 Differential Scanning Calorimetry, 5.3.2 Dynamic Mechanical Analysis, 5.3.3 Thermogravimetric Analysis , 5.3.4 Transmission Electron Microscopy, 5.3.5 Scanning Electron Microscopy, 5.3.6 Energy-dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy, 5.3.7 Atomic Force Microscopy, 5.3.8 X-Ray Scattering, 5.3.9 Size-exclusion Chromatography, 5.3.10 Gas Chromatography Coupled with Mass Spectrometry, 5.3.11 Contact Angle , 5.4 Accelerated Ageing, 5.4.1 Introduction, 5.4.2 Theoretical Principles, 5.4.3 Accelerated Ageing Experiments in Practice, 5.4.4 Experimental Set-up, 5.4.5 Criteria

6 Paper Restoration: From Traditional to Present-day Methods
6.1 Introduction, 6.2 The Traditional Approach to Paper Restoration, 6.2.1 Examination and Testing , 6.2.2 Mould and Insect Treatment, 6.2.3 Removal of Acid Mounting, Tapes, Adhesives and Old Repairs, 6.2.4 Cleaning , 6.2.5 Mass Deacidification, 6.2.6 Hygroscopic Stabilisation or Flattening, 6.2.7 Repair of Cuts and Tears and Reintegration of Missing Areas, .2.8 Resizing, 6.2.9 Consolidation, 6.3 Recent Developments in Deacidification, 6.3.1 Diethylzinc, 6.3.2 BookKeeper, 6.3.3 Wei T'o, 6.3.4 Battelle, 6.3.5 FMC Process, 6.3.6 BookSaver , 6.3.7 The 'Viennese Method', 6.3.8 Deacidification with Aminoalkylalkoxysilanes, 6.3.9 Further Developments, 6.3.9.1 Bibliothèque Nationale Method, 6.3.9.2 Bückeburg Process, 6.3.9.3 Electrolytic Conductance Method, 6.4 Treatment of Ink Corrosion, 6.5 Paper Splitting , 6.6 Lamination, 6.7 The Use of Polymers in Paper Conservation, 6.7.1 Vapour Phase Consolidation of Books using Parylene , 6.7.2 Graft Polymerisation (British Library Method), 6.7.3 Graft Polymerisation (University of Genova Method), 6.7.4 Impregnation with Polymers, 6.7.5 The Use of Inorganic Polymers, 6.8 Plasma Treatment

7 Polymeric Adhesives and Consolidants
7.1 Polymers and Art Conservation, 7.2 Adhesives and Consolidants, 7.3 Adhesives used in Paper Conservation, 7.4 An Overview of the Polymers Commonly used in Paper Conservation, 7.4.1 Polyacrylates and Polymethacrylates,7.4.2 Fluorinated Polymers , 7.4.3 Polyvinyl Acetate, 7.4.4 Polyvinyl Alcohol, 7.4.5 Cellulose Derivatives, 7.5 A Case Study: Testing Adhesives at the Canadian Conservation Institute, 7.6 Polymer Ageing , 7.6.1 The Ageing of Acrylic Polymers, 7.6.2 The Biological Degradation of Synthetic Polymers

8 Storage and Display
8.1 Introduction, 8.2 Environmental Conditions, 8.2.1 Temperature and Relative Humidity, 8.2.2 Light, 8.2.3 Pollutants, 8.3 Storage and Display Materials, 8.4 Storage and Handling Practice

9 Case Histories,
9.1 Introduction, 9.2 Assessment of the Degradation Levels of Ancient Paper within the Framework of the Papertech Project, 9.2.1 Characterisation of the Wallpapers, 9.2.2 Characterisation of the Vicenza Map, 9.2.3 Characterisation of a Dutch Map, 9.3 Characterisation of Inks used on Printed Papers, 9.4 Examples of the use of Polymers in Paper Conservation, 9.4.1 Heat-seal Adhesive Lining of Pen and Iron Gall Ink Drawings with Sprayed Polyvinyl Acetate, 9.4.2 The Consolidation of Historic Wallpapers, 9.4.2.1 Les Paysages de Télémaque, 9.4.2.2 Paysage à Chasses, 9.4.2.3 Sauvages de la mer du Pacifique

Abbreviations
Index

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