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Food and beverage stability and shelf life

Edited by K Kilcast 
Woodhead Publishing  April 2011  



Hardback  864 pp  ISBN 9781845697013      £190.00
  • a comprehensive guide to factors influencing stability, methods of stability and shelf life assessment and the stability and shelf life of major products
  • describes important food and beverage quality deterioration processes exploring microbiological spoilage and physical instability
  • investigate the effects of ingredients, processing and packaging on stability and documents methods for stability and shelf life assessment
  • reviews the stability and shelf life of a wide range of products, including beer, soft drinks, fruit, bread, oils, confectionery products, milk and seafood

Ensuring that foods and beverages remain stable during the required shelf life is critical to their success in the market place, yet companies experience difficulties in this area. Food and beverage stability and shelf life provides a comprehensive guide to factors influencing stability, methods of stability and shelf life assessment and the stability and shelf life of major products.

Part one describes important food and beverage quality deterioration processes, including microbiological spoilage and physical instability. Chapters in this section also investigate the effects of ingredients, processing and packaging on stability, among other factors. Part two describes methods for stability and shelf life assessment including food storage trials, accelerated testing and shelf life modelling. Part three reviews the stability and shelf life of a wide range of products, including beer, soft drinks, fruit, bread, oils, confectionery products, milk and seafood.

Food and beverage stability and shelf life is a useful reference for professionals involved in quality assurance and product development and researchers focussing on food and beverage stability.

Contents

PART 1 DETERIORATIVE PROCESSES AND FACTORS INFLUENCING SHELF LIFE

Microbiological spoilage of foods and beverages G-J E Nychas and E Panagou, Agricultural University of Athens, Greece - Introduction - Spoilage of foods and beverages; a microbiological approach: microbes vs indigenous enzymes - Factors affecting the rate of microbiological spoilage of foods and beverages - Evaluating, monitoring and measuring microbiological spoilage of foods and beverages - Predicting microbiological spoilage of foods and beverages - Preventing microbiological spoilage of foods and beverages - Future trends - Sources of further information and advice - References

Chemical deterioration and physical instability of foods and beverages F Kong, University of California, Davis, USA, R P Singh, University of California, Davis, USA and Massey University, New Zealand
- Introduction - Chemical deterioration and physical instability of foods and beverages - Factors affecting the rate of quality loss due to chemical deterioration and physical instability - Measuring chemical deterioration and physical instability of foods and beverages - Predicting and monitoring chemical deterioration and physical instability of foods and beverages - Preventing chemical deterioration and physical instability of foods and beverages - Future trends - Sources of further information and advice - References

Moisture loss, gain and migration in foods G Roudaut and F Debeaufort, University of Burgundy, France and IUT-Dijon, France
- Introduction: moisture loss, gain and migration in foods and quality deterioration - Mechanism of the moisture transfers in food products - Measuring, monitoring and predicting moisture loss, gain and migrations - Moisture loss, gain and migration related to the shelf life - Conditions for moisture migration and foods affected by moisture transfer - References

Insect and mite penetration and contamination of packaged foods C H Bell, Food and Environment Research Agency, UK
- Introduction - Insects and mites contaminating stored food products - Coleoptera - Lepidoptera - Psocoptera - Other insects - Mites - Combating critical points in the food chain - Future trends - Sources of further information and advice - References

The influence of ingredients on product stability and shelf life N W G Young, Danisco A/S, Multiple Food Applications, Denmark and University of Chester, UK and G R O'Sullivan, Danisco A/S, Multiple Food Applications, Denmark
- Introduction to shelf life - Methods of shelf life extension - Movement of moisture in food systems - Food spoilage due to water activity - Edible moisture barriers - Molecular mobility - Preservation of foods by freezing - Sweetener ingredients as humectants or cryoprotectants - Ingredients for shelf life extension - Future trends - Sources of further information and advice - Appendix

Processing and food and beverage shelf life M Brown, MHB Consulting, UK
- Introduction - Main quality change factors and their interaction with processing - Shelf life and stability - Product and process design - Processing - Unit operations - Production of low and intermediate moisture foods - Thermal processing - Filling and packaging - Novel processes - Hygiene - Future trends - References and sources of further information and advice

Packaging and food and beverage shelf life G L Robertson, University of Queensland and Food Packaging Environment, Australia
- Introduction - Role of packaging in extending food and beverage shelf life - Major packaging materials - Key package properties related to shelf life - Predicting shelf life of packaged foods and beverages - Packaging migrants and food and beverage shelf life - Future trends - Sources of further information and advice - References

Effects of food and beverage storage, distribution, display and consumer handling on shelf life J Evans, London South Bank University, UK
- Introduction - Overview of the cold chain - Storage life - Sectors of the cold chain and their influence on food quality and safety - Future trends - Sources of further information and advice - References

Smart packaging for monitoring and managing food and beverage shelf life P S Taoukis, National Technical University of Athens, Greece
- Introduction: smart packaging- time temperature integrators (TTI) - Principles of (TTI) application for shelf life monitoring - Requirements and selection of (TTI) for food and beverage products - Use of (TTI) for shelf life management and optimization in the cold chain- case study - Future trends - Acknowledgements - References

PART 2 METHODS FOR SHELF LIFE AND STABILITY EVALUATION

Food storage trials: an introduction C M D Man, London South Bank University, UK
- Introduction - Food deterioration and spoilage - Storage trials - Future trends - References

Sensory evaluation methods for food shelf life assessment D Kilcast, Consultant in Food and Beverage Sensory Quality, UK
- Introduction - Principles of sensory evaluation - Basic requirements for sensory analysis - Discrimination tests - Quantitative descriptive tests - Consumer acceptability testing - Operation of sensory shelf life tests - Design of sensory shelf life tests - Interpretation of sensory shelf life data - Instrumental methods - Standardisation in sensory shelf life testing - Future trends - Sources of further information and advice - References - Appendix

Advances in instrumental methods to determine food quality deterioration F Kong, University of California, Davis, USA and R P Singh, University of California, Davis, USA and Massey University, New Zealand
- Introduction - Assessing food appearance - Measurement of relative humidity (RH), moisture, and water activity (aw) - Texture evaluation - Evaluation of rheological properties of liquid and semisolid foods - Assessing lipid oxidation - Electronic nose - Electronic tongue - Infrared (IR) spectroscopy - Microbiological test - Future trends - Sources of further information and advice - References

Modelling microbiological shelf-life of foods and beverages A Amézquita, D Kan-King-Yu and Y Le Marc, Unilever R&D Colworth, UK
- Introduction - Classification of predictive models by microbial response - Development of predictive models for microbiological safety and stability - Modelling approaches, applications and opportunities for shelf life prediction - Usage considerations and access to predictive microbiology electronic resources - Future trends - Acknowledgements - References

Modelling chemical and physical deterioration of foods and beverages M J de Sousa-Gallagher, P V Mahajan and Z Yan, University College Cork, Ireland
- Introduction - Factors influencing the shelf life - Development of mathematical models - Predictive mathematical models - Future trends - References

Accelerated shelf life testing of foods S Mizrahi, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Israel
- Introduction - Basic principles - Initial rate approach - Kinetic model approach - Single accelerating factor - Glass transition models - Multiple accelerating factors - Dynamic methods - The 'no model' approach - Combination of approaches - Problems in accelerated shelf life tests - Future trends - References

Microbiological challenge testing of foods E Komitopoulou, Leatherhead Food Research, UK
- Introduction: role of challenge testing in shelf life evaluation - Basic principles - Challenge testing-limitations - Challenge testing and the use of mathematical models - Future trends - Sources of further information and advice - References

PART 3 THE STABILITY AND SHELF LIFE OF PARTICULAR PRODUCTS

Beer shelf life and stability G G Stewart and F G Priest, Heriot-Watt University, UK
- Introduction - Biological instability - Physical instability - Flavour instability - Foam instability - Gushing - Light instability - Conclusions - References

Shelf life of wine R S Jackson, Brock University, Canada
- Introduction - Factors affecting wine stability and shelf life - Changes during the shelf life of wine - Evaluating wine shelf life - Preventing wine quality deterioration at or post-bottling - Sensory significance of shelf life changes - Future trends - Sources of further information and advice - References

The stability and shelf life of fruit juices and soft drinks P Ashurst, Ashurst and Associates, UK
- Introduction - Factors influencing the stability of fruit juices and soft drinks - Ensuring product stability and extending shelf life - Shelf life determination - Future trends - Sources of further information and advice

Practical uses of sensory evaluation for the assessment of soft drink shelf life L L Rogers, Consultant, UK
- Introduction - Using a risk based approach to shelf life for soft drinks - Estimating shelf life - Determining shelf life - Monitoring shelf life - Considerations before developing the shelf life plan - Developing the sensory plan - Case studies - Future trends - References and sources of further information and advice

The stability and shelf life of coffee products L Manzocco, S.Calligaris and M C Nicoli, University of Udine, Italy
- Introduction - Main critical events affecting the stability and shelf life of coffee products - Ensuring stability and extending the shelf life of coffee - Evaluating the shelf life of coffee - Future trends - Sources of further information and advice - References

The stability and shelf life of fruit and vegetables M J de Sousa Gallagher and P Mahajan, University College Cork, Ireland
- Introduction - Stability and shelf life of fruits and vegetables - Extending the shelf life of fruit and vegetables - Controlled and modified atmosphere packaging for longer shelf life - Future trends - References

The stability and shelf life of bread and other bakery products S P Cauvain and L Young, BakeTran, UK
- Introduction - A brief overview of the manufacture of bakery products - The key 'fresh' characteristics of bakery products - Factors affecting the stability of bread and other bakery products - Evaluating the shelf life of bread and other bakery products - Ensuring stability and extending the shelf life of bread and other bakery products - Future trends - References

The stability and shelf life of fats and oils G Talbot, The Fat Consultant, UK
- Introduction - Mechanisms of oxidation and hydrolysis in fats and oils - Factors affecting the stability and shelf life of fats and oils - Evaluating the shelf life of fats and oils - Ensuring stability and extending the shelf life of fats and oils - Future trends - Sources of further information and advice - References

The stability and shelf life of confectionery products P Subramaniam, Leatherhead Food Research, UK
- Introduction - Factors affecting shelf life - Chocolate and chocolate products - Sugar glass - Toffee - Gums and jellies - Aerated confectionery - Sources of further information and advice - References

The stability and shelf life of vitamin-fortified foods R Burch, Leatherhead Food Research, UK
- Introduction - Factors affecting the stability and shelf life of vitamin-fortified foods - Ensuring stability and extending the shelf life of vitamin-fortified foods - Evaluating the shelf life of vitamin-fortified foods - Future trends - Sources of further information and advice - References

The stability and shelf life of milk and milk products D D Muir, Consultant, UK
- Introduction - Chemical composition and principal reactions of milk - Bacteria in milk and related enzyme activity - Raw milk enzymes - Control of the quality of short shelf life products - Factors influencing the life of long shelf life products - Control of the stability of long-life milk products - Conclusions - Dedication - Bibliography

The stability and shelf life of seafood F Toldrá, Institute of Agro-chemical Technology and food (CSIC), Spain and M Reig, Polytechnical University of Valencia, Spain
- Introduction - Factors affecting the stability and shelf life of seafood - Microorganisms involved in seafood spoilage - Evaluation of the shelf life of seafood - Future trends - Sources of further information and advice - References

The stability and shelf life of meat and poultry M G O'Sullivan, University College Cork, Ireland
- Introduction - Factors affecting the stability and shelf life of meat and poultry - Evaluating the shelf life of meat and poultry - Ensuring stability and extending the shelf life of meat and poultry - Future trends - Sources of further information and advice - References

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