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Tracing pathogens in the food chain

Edited by by S Brul, P M Fratamico, McMeekin 
Woodhead Publishing  November 2010  



Hardcover  640 pp  ISBN 9781845694968      £160.00
  • reviews key aspects of the surveillance, analysis and spread of foodborne pathogens
  • provides an overview of method validation and quality assurance
  • examines the tracing of pathogens in specific food chains, such as red meat, game and dairy
  • reviews the subtyping of foodborne pathogens, with chapters on phenoytypic subtyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis

Successful methods for the detection and investigation of outbreaks of foodborne disease are essential for ensuring consumer safety. Increased understanding of the transmission of pathogens in food chains will also assist efforts to safeguard public health. Tracing pathogens in the food chain reviews key aspects of the surveillance, analysis and spread of foodborne pathogens at different stages of industrial food production and processing.

Part one provides an introduction to foodborne pathogen surveillance, outbreak investigation and control. Part two concentrates on subtyping of foodborne pathogens, with chapters on phenoytypic subtyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, as well as emerging methods. The vital topics of method validation and quality assurance are also covered. The focus in Part three is on particular techniques for the surveillance and study of pathogens, such as protein-based analysis, ribotyping and comparative genomics. Finally, Part four focuses on tracing pathogens in specific food chains, such as red meat and game, dairy, fish and shellfish.

With its distinguished editors and international team of contributors, Tracing pathogens in the food chain will be of value to researchers, public health experts and food industry professionals concerned with the study and control of foodborne disease.

Contents

Introduction S Brul, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands, P Fratamico, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS), USA and T McMeekin, University of Tasmania, Australia
- Microbes and the food chain - Where and in what 'state' are noxious microbes in our food chain? - Towards integration - References

PART 1 FOODBORNE PATHOGEN SURVEILLANCE AND OUTBREAK INVESTIGATION

Surveillance for foodborne pathogens in humans I S T Fisher, HPA Centre for Infections, UK
- Introduction - Methods for the surveillance of foodborne pathogens - National and international surveillance systems in use - Limitations to surveillance activities - Future trends - Conclusion - References

Systems for real-time, linked foodborne pathogen surveillance P Gerner-Smidt, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, USA
- Introduction - Models for real-time linked foodborne pathogen surveillance: the Salm-net/Enter-net model - Models for real-time linked foodborne pathogen surveillance: the PulseNet model - Future trends - Sources of further information and advice - References

Detection, investigation and control of outbreaks of foodborne disease C Stein and A Ellis, World health Organization, Switzerland and T Jones, Tennessee Department of Health, USA
- Introduction - Planning and preparation - Outbreak detection - Outbreak investigation: epidemiological investigations - Descriptive epidemiological investigations - Analytical epidemiological investigations - Environmental and food investigations - Laboratory investigations - Control measures - Control of transmission - End of outbreak - Acknowledgements - References and useful reading

Attributing the burden of foodborne disease to specific sources of infection T Hald and S M Pires, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark
- Introduction - Definitions - Approaches for source attribution - Conclusions and recommendations - References

Determining the economic costs and global burden of foodborne disease J C Buzby, US Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service (USDA-ERS), USA
- Introduction - Challenges faced in estimating the impact of foodborne disease - Methods used to value the impact of foodborne disease - Examples of the economic costs of foodborne disease and their use in cost-benefit analyses of food safety interventions - Future trends - Sources of further information and advice - References

PART 2 SUBTYPING OF FOODBORNE PATHOGENS

Phenoytypic subtyping of foodborne pathogens W A Gebreyes, Ohio State University and S Thakur, North Carolina State University, USA
- Overview of phenotypic subtyping - Serogrouping and serotyping - Biotyping - Phage typing - Antibiotyping (Antibiogram) - Multi-locus enzyme electrophoresis - Hemagglutination - Conclusions - References

Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and other commonly used molecular methods for subtyping of foodborne bacteria K L F Cooper, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, USA
- Introduction - Technical overview - Comparison of molecular methods - Library subtyping - Data interpretation for foodborne disease surveillance and outbreak investigation - Future trends - References

Emerging methods for foodborne bacterial subtyping F Pagotto and A Reid, Health Canada, Canada
- Introduction - Nucleic acid-based technologies - Protein-based technologies - Other emerging technologies - Conclusions and future trends - References

Development, validation and quality assurance of methods for subtyping of foodborne pathogens E K Hyytia-Trees and E M Ribot, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, USA
- Introduction - Strain selection for protocol development and validation - Protocol development - Internal validation - External validation - Establishment of reference databases and a QA/QC program - Future trends - Sources of further information and advice - References

PART 3 MOLECULAR METHODS, GENOMICS AND OTHER EMERGING APPROACHES IN THE SURVEILLANCE AND STUDY OF FOODBORNE PATHOGENS

Sample preparation for the detection of foodborne pathogens by molecular biological methods P Rossmanith, Christian-Doppler Laboratory for Molecular Biological Food Analytics and M Wagner, Department for Farm Animals and Public Veterinary Health, Austria
- Introduction - Physical separation methods used in sample preparation - Biochemical and biological separation methods used in sample preparation - Chemical and enzymatic pre-separation methods for sample treatment - Related approaches and combined sample preparation and detection methods - Conclusion and future trends - Acknowledgements - References

A comparison of molecular technologies and genomotyping for tracing and strain characterization of Campylobacter isolates J van der Vossen, B Keijser, F Schuren, A Nocker and R Montijn, TNO Quality of Life, The Netherlands
- Introduction - Methodologies for tracing and/or understanding strain properties - Conclusion - References

Investigating foodborne pathogens using comparative genomics R A Stabler, E S Nalerio, P C Strong and B W Wren, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK
- Introduction - Molecular typing systems in tracking bacterial pathogens in the food chain - Whole genome approaches using microarrays - Conclusions and future trends - References

Protein-based analysis and other new and emerging non-nucleic acid based methods for tracing and investigating food-borne pathogens J P Bowman, University of Tasmania, Australia
- Introduction - Distinguishing live from dead cells: viability and pH sensitive stains for assessing cell physiology - Rapid sample scanning: fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) coupled to secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), Fourier transform and Raman spectroscopy - Electrophysiology - Proteomics - Applications of proteomics for detection of foodborne pathogens - Metabolomics - Sources of further information and advice - References

Virulotyping of foodborne pathogens T M Wassenaar, Molecular Microbiology and Genomic Consultants, Germany
- Introduction - Defining and identifying virulence genes - Virulotyping: advantages and disadvantages - Examples of specific pathogens - Future trends - References

Using ribotyping to trace foodborne aerobic sporeforming bacteria in the factory: a case study A C M van Zuijlen, Unilever R&D Vlaardingen, The Netherlands
- Introduction - Ingredients as a source of bacterial spores - Growth of bacterial spores in line - Identifying relevant sporeformers - Tracking sources of relevant sporeformers - Controlling levels of sporeformers in production - Future trends - References

Biotracing: a novel concept in food safety integrating microbiology knowledge, complex systems approaches and probabilistic modelling J Hoorfar, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark, M Wagner, Department of Farm Animal and Veterinary Public Health, Austria, K Jordan, Teagasc, Ireland and G C Barker, Institute of Food Research, UK
- What is BIOTRACER? - Definition of biotracing - Fundamental concepts of biotracing - Why is biotraceability needed? - What are the gaps in biotraceability? - How can these gaps be closed? - What are the achievements so far? - Specific achievements to date - Future trends - Acknowledgements - References

PART 4 TRACING PATHOGENS IN PARTICULAR FOOD CHAINS

Tracing pathogens in red meat and game production chains and at the abattoir P Whyte, S Fanning, S O'Brien, L O'Grady and K Solomon, University College Dublin, Ireland
- Introduction - Foodborne pathogens in red meat and their public health significance - Potential amplification steps and control of enteropathogens in red meat and game production chains - Antimicrobial resistance in red meat pathogens - Future trends - Sources of further information and advice - References

Tracing pathogens in fish production chains B T Lunestad and A Levsen, NIFES and J T Rosnes, NOFIMA Norconserv, Norway
- Introduction - Foodborne pathogens in the fish production chains - Bacteria - Biogenic amines - Parasites - Fungi and mycotoxins - Tracking the sources, reservoirs, survival and potential amplification steps of human pathogens in fish production chains - Pathogen monitoring and control strategies - New preservation strategies - HACCP - Microbial modelling - Future trends - Sources of further information and advice - References

Tracing pathogens in poultry and egg production and at the abattoir K L Hiett, United States Department of Agriculture, USA
- Introduction - Pathogens associated with broiler meat - Source tracking - Phenotypic based tracking methods - Nucleic acid based methods - Reservoirs and potential amplification steps of human pathogens in poultry production chains - Pathogen monitoring strategies - Improving pathogen control - Antimicrobial resistance - Future trends - Sources of further information and advice - References

Tracing zoonotic pathogens in dairy production J S Van Kessel, M Santin-Duran and J S Karns, United States Department of Agriculture and Y Schukken, Cornell University, USA
- Introduction - Foodborne pathogens in dairy production chains and their significance for public health - Tracking the sources, reservoirs and potential amplification steps of human pathogens in dairy production - Pathogen monitoring strategies - Improving pathogen control - Future trends - References

Tracing pathogens in molluscan shellfish production chains R J Lee and R E Rangdale, Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, UK
- Introduction - Overview of shellfish production chains - Foodborne pathogens in shellfish - Typing methods for tracking pathogens in shellfish production chains - Pathogen monitoring strategies - Pathogen typing strategies - Improving pathogen control - Future trends - Sources of further information and advice - References

Tracing pathogens in fruit and vegetable production chains R E Mandrell, US Department of Agriculture, USA
- Introduction - Summary of major outbreaks linked to pre-harvest contamination of produce - Incidence of human pathogens on fresh produce - Incidence of generic E - coli on produce - Animal sources of enteric foodborne pathogens relevant to produce contamination - Pathogens in municipal and agricultural watersheds - Fitness of human pathogens in the environment - Fecal indicators of contamination in watersheds - Survival of human pathogens on pre-harvest plants - Hydrology and microorganisms - Microbial source tracking - Microbial source tracking in recent produce outbreak investigations - Next generation Microbial source tracking - Conclusions - Acknowledgements - References

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