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Determining mycotoxins and mycotoxigenic fungi in food and feed

Edited by S De Saeger 
Woodhead Publishing  February 2011  



Hardcover  456 pp  ISBN 9781845696740      £145.00
  • focuses on the essentials of mycotoxin determination, covering sampling, sample preparation, clean-up and key determination techniques
  • documents quality assurance and official methods and performance criteria for determining mycotoxins in food and feed
  • explores the processes of determining mycotoxigenic fungi in food and feed including the identification of genes and gene clusters
  • reviews some of the emerging methods for mycotoxin analysis, ranging from bio-sensing to spectroscopic techniques

Mycotoxins - toxic secondary metabolites produced by mycotoxigenic fungi pose a significant risk to the food chain. Indeed, they may be the most hazardous of all food contaminants in terms of chronic toxicity and legislative limits on their levels in food and feed continue to be developed worldwide. Rapid and reliable methods for the determination of both mycotoxigenic fungi and mycotoxins in food and feed are therefore essential. This book reviews current and emerging methods in this area.

Part one focuses on the essentials of mycotoxin determination, covering sampling, sample preparation and clean-up and key determination techniques, such as chromatographic separation, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and immunochemical methods. Part two then goes on to describe quality assurance, official methods and performance criteria for determining mycotoxins in food and feed. Topics covered include laboratory accreditation, method validation and measurement uncertainty. The development and analysis of biomarkers for mycotoxins are discussed in part three. Individual chapters focus on detecting exposure in humans and animals. Part four is concerned with the processes involved in determining mycotoxigenic fungi in food and feed. It also describes the identification of genes and gene clusters involved in mycotoxin synthesis, as well as DNA barcoding of toxigenic fungi. Finally, part five explores some of the emerging methods for mycotoxin analysis, ranging from bio-sensing to spectroscopic techniques.

With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, Determining mycotoxins and mycotoxigenic fungi in food and feed should be a standard reference for all those concerned with reducing mycotoxin contamination in the food chain.

Contents

PART 1 DETERMINING MYCOTOXINS IN FOOD AND FEED

Sampling strategies to control mycotoxins B Maestroni and A Cannavan, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Austria
- Food safety and the requirements for international food trade - Principles of food and feed sampling for mycotoxin analysis - International guidance on sampling food and feed for mycotoxin analysis - Uncertainty estimation, and designing sound sampling plans for mycotoxin analysis in food and feed - Quality assurance and quality control procedures in sampling, arrival of the sample at the analytical laboratory - Training of sampling inspectors and strengthening national food control systems - Sources of further information and advice - References

Sample preparation and clean up for mycotoxin analysis: principles, applications and recent developments E Razzazi-Fazeli and E V Reiter, University of Veterinary Medicine, Austria
- Introduction - Methods used for extraction and clean-up of mycotoxins from complex matrices - Recent developments - Conclusion - Acknowledgement - References

Chromatographic separation techniques for determination of mycotoxins in food and feed G S Shephard, Medical Research Council, South Africa
- Introduction - Thin layer chromatography in mycotoxin analysis of food and feeds - Gas chromatography in mycotoxin analysis of food and feeds - High-performance liquid chromatography in mycotoxin analysis of food and feeds - Electrophoretic separations in mycotoxin analysis of food and feeds - Future trends - Sources of further information and advice - References

Mass spectrometry in multi-mycotoxin and fungal spore analysis M C Spanjer, Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority, The Netherlands
- Introduction - Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) methods in multi-mycotoxin analysis - Liquid chromatography aspects of multi-mycotoxin methods - Mass spectrometry aspects of multi-mycotoxin methods - LC-MS methods in multi-mycotoxin analysis - Future trends in LC-MS analysis - Conclusions - Acknowledgements - References

Immunochemical methods for rapid mycotoxin detection in food and feed I Y Goryacheva, Saratov State University, Russia and S De Saeger, Ghent University, Belgium
- Introduction - Antibody production and characterization - Specificity of immunochemical methods for rapid mycotoxin detection in food and feed - Microtiter plate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for rapid mycotoxin detection in food and feed - Non-instrumental rapid tests for mycotoxin detection in food and feed - Conclusions and future trends - References

PART 2 QUALITY ASSURANCE AND OFFICIAL METHODS FOR DETERMINING MYCOTOXINS IN FOOD AND FEED

Official methods and performance criteria for determining mycotoxins in food and feed H Z Senyuva and J Gilbert, FoodLife International Ltd., Turkey
- Introduction - Official Control Laboratories for determining mycotoxins in food and feed - Establishment of method performance criteria for determining mycotoxins in food and feed - Official methods for determining mycotoxins in food and feed - Literature publication of mycotoxin validation studies - Enforcement of mycotocin regulations - Confirmation of results - Conclusions and future trends - References

Ensuring the quality of results from food control laboratories: laboratory accreditation, method validation and measurement uncertainty J O De Beer, Scientific Institute of Public Health and C Van Poucke, Ghent University, Belgium
- Introduction: why accreditation can be important for laboratories - Laboratory accreditation and ISO 17025 - Statistical method validation approach for ensuring the quality of results from food control laboratories - Comparison of a routine method with a reference method for validating the results from food and feed control laboratories - Measurement uncertainty in the results from food and feed control laboratories - Conclusion and future trends - References

PART 3 DEVELOPMENT AND ANALYSIS OF BIOMARKERS FOR MYCOTOXIN

S Developing biomarkers of human exposure to mycotoxins M N Routledge and Y Y Gong, University of Leeds, UK
- Introduction and biomarkers for exposure - Biomarkers of exposure for aflatoxin - Biomarkers of exposure for fumonisin - Biomarkers of exposure for deoxynivalenol - Summary - References

Developing mechanism-based and exposure biomarkers for mycotoxins in animals R T Riley and K A Voss, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (USDA ARS), R A Coulombe, Jr., Utah State University, J J Pestka, Michigan State University and D E Williams, Oregon State University, USA
- Background - Mechanism of action and current state of biomarker development for selected mycotoxins - Aflatoxin B1 biomarkers of exposure and effect in animals - Deoxynivalenol and other trichothecenes biomarkers of exposure and effect in animals - Fumonisins biomarkers of exposure and effect in animals - Ochratoxin A biomarkers of exposure and effect in animals - Zearalenone biomarkers of exposure and effect in animals - Future trends - Acknowledgements - References

PART 4 DETERMINING MYCOTOXIGENIC FUNGI IN FOOD AND FEED

Rationale for a polyphasic approach in the identification of mycotoxigenic fungi J C Frisvad, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark
- Introduction - Mycotoxinogenic fungi - Identification methods - Molecular methods for identification - Conclusions - Acknowledgement - References

Molecular identification of mycotoxigenic fungi in food and feedstuffs F Munaut and F Van Hove, Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium and A Moretti, National Research Council (CNR), Italy
- Introduction - Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection and quantification using conserved genes - PCR detection and quantification using anonymous DNA sequences - PCR detection and quantification using mycotoxin biosynthesis pathway genes - Multistep strategies - Multiplex detection - PCR-based methods - Novel technologies - Conclusion and future prospects - References

Identification of genes and gene clusters involved in mycotoxin synthesis D W Brown, R A E Butchko and R H Proctor, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (USDA ARS), USA
- Introduction - Genetic basis for secondary metabolite biosynthesis - Gene and gene cluster identification: pre-genomics - Gene and gene cluster identification: early-genomics - Gene and gene cluster identification: post-genome genomics - Future trends - Acknowledgement - References

DNA barcoding of mycotoxigenic fungi: a perspective M Santamaria, National Research Council (CNR), Italy
- DNA barcode: a new opportunity to discriminate fungi species - Future trends in DNA barcoding of fungi - Sources of further information and advice about DNA barcode - References

PART 5 EMERGING METHODS FOR MYCOTOXIN ANALYSIS IN FOOD AND FEED

Emerging bio-sensing methods for mycotoxin analysis I E Tothill, Cranfield University, UK
- Introduction - Lab-on-a-chip for multiplex detection of mycotoxins - Nanomaterials and their use in biosensors for mycotoxin analysis - Electronic nose method for mycotoxin analysis - Future trends - Conclusions - Acknowledgement - References

Masked mycotoxins in food and feed: challenges and analytical approaches J D Di Mavungu and S De Saeger, Ghent University, Belgium
- Introduction - Occurrence of masked mycotoxins in food and feed - Analysis of mycotoxins in food and feed - Conclusions - References

Spectroscopic techniques for fungi and mycotoxin detection, C B Singh and D S Jayas, University of Manitoba, Canada
- Introduction - Spectroscopic techniques - Applications - Summary - References

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