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Sensory Evaluation of Food - Principles and Practices

Lawless, Harry T., Heymann, Hildegarde 
Springer  2010  



Hardcover  850 pp  ISBN 9781441964878      £54.00
Sensory Evaluation of Food: Principles and Practices, covers the field of sensory science that has grown exponentially since the publication of the previous version of this work.. This book has been expanded to reflect the advances in methodologies, theory and analysis that have transpired in the last 15 years. The chapters are now divided into numbered subsections. This may be of assistance to educators who may wish to assign only certain critical sections to beginning students. Much of the organization of key chapters has been done with this in mind.

In some of the opening sections instructors will find suggestions about which sections are key for fundamental understanding of that topic or method, in many chapters specified as a €recommended procedure.€ In cases where there are multiple options for procedure or analysis a simple solution rather than one that is more complex are selected. This text attempts to be comprehensive, yet understandable to all students at the university level. All the major sensory test methods are illustrated and discussed, including discrimination, descriptive and affective tests.

Some chapters are devoted to special topics such as thresholds, time-intensity methods, similarity testing, color, texture, sensory quality control, qualitative research methods, consumer test methods and questionnaires, shelf life testing, an introduction to multivariate statistical techniques, and strategic sensory research. The statistical appendix provides basic instruction in the common statistical analyses for sensory evaluation with worked examples.

Contents

Introduction
Introduction and Overview , Historical Landmarks and the Three Classes, of Test Methods , Applications: Why Collect Sensory Data? , Summary and Conclusions , References

Physiological and Psychological Foundations of Sensory Function
Introduction , Classical Sensory Testing and Psychophysical Methods , Anatomy and Physiology and Functions of Taste , Anatomy and Physiology and Functions of Smell , Chemesthesis , Multi-modal Sensory Interactions , References

Principles of Good Practice
Introduction , The Sensory Testing Environment , Test Protocol Considerations , Experimental Design , Panelist Considerations , Tabulation andAnalysis , Conclusion , References

Discrimination Testing
Discrimination Testing , Types of Discrimination Tests , Reputed Strengths and Weaknesses of Discrimination, Tests , DataAnalyses , Issues , References

Similarity, Equivalence Testing, and Discrimination Theory
Introduction , Common Sense Approaches to Equivalence , Estimation of Sample Size and Test Power , How Big of a Difference Is Important?, Discriminator Theory , Tests for Significant Similarity , The Two One-Sided Test Approach (TOST), and Interval Testing , Claim Substantiation , Models for Discrimination: Signal Detection Theory , Thurstonian Scaling , Extensions of the Thurstonian Methods, R-Index , Conclusions

Measurement of Sensory Thresholds
Introduction: The Threshold Concept , Types of Thresholds: Definitions , Practical Methods: Ascending Forced Choice , Suggested Method for Taste/Odor/Flavor, DetectionThresholds , Case Study/Worked Example , Other Forced Choice Methods , ProbitAnalysis , Sensory Adaptation, Sequential Effects, and Variability , Alternative Methods: Rated Difference, Adaptive, Procedures, Scaling , DilutiontoThresholdMeasures , Conclusions , References

Scaling
Introduction , Some Theory , Common Methods of Scaling , Recommended Practice and Practical Guidelines , Variations-Other Scaling Techniques , Comparing Methods: What is a Good Scale? , Issues , Conclusions , References

Time-Intensity Methods
Introduction , A Brief History , Variations on the Method , Recommended Procedures , DataAnalysisOptions , Examples andApplications , Issues , Conclusions , References

Context Effects and Biases in Sensory Judgment
Introduction: The Relative Nature of Human Judgment , SimpleContrast Effects , Range and Frequency Effects , Biases , Response Correlation and Response Restriction , Classical Psychological Errors and Other Biases , Antidotes , Conclusions , References

Descriptive Analysis
Introduction , UsesofDescriptiveAnalyses , Language and Descriptive Analysis , Descriptive Analysis Techniques , Generic Descriptive Analysis , Variations ontheTheme , References

Texture Evaluation
Texture Defined , Visual, Auditory, and Tactile Texture , Sensory Texture Measurements , Conclusions , References

Color and Appearance
Color and Appearance , What IsColor? , Vision , Measurement of Appearance and Color Attributes , InstrumentalColorMeasurement , Conclusions , References

Preference Testing
Introduction-Consumer Sensory Evaluation , Preference Tests: Overview , Simple Paired Preference Testing , Non-forced Preference , Replicated Preference Tests , Replicated Non-forced Preference , Other Related Methods , Conclusions , References

Acceptance Testing
Introduction: Scaled Liking Versus Choice , Hedonic Scaling: Quantification of Acceptability , Recommended Procedure , Other Acceptance Scales , Just-About-Right Scales , Behavioral and Context-Related Approaches , Conclusions , References

Consumer Field Tests and Questionnaire Design
Sensory Testing Versus Concept Testing , Testing Scenarios: Central Location, Home Use , Practical Matters in Conducting Consumer Field Tests , Interacting with Field Services , Questionnaire Design , Rules ofThumb for ConstructingQuestions , Other Useful Questions: Satisfaction, Agreement,, Conclusions , References

Qualitative Consumer Research Methods
Introduction , Characteristics of Focus Groups , Using Focus Groups in Sensory Evaluation , Examples,CaseStudies , Conducting Focus Group Studies , Issues in Moderating , Alternative Procedures and Variations of the Group, Conclusions , References

Quality Control and Shelf-Life (Stability) Testing
Introduction: Objectives and Challenges , A Quick Look at Traditional Quality Control , Methods for Sensory QC , Recommended Procedure: Difference Scoring with, Key Attribute Scales , The Importance of Good Practice , Historical Footnote: Expert Judges and Quality Scoring , Program Requirements and Program Development , Shelf-Life Testing , Summary and Conclusions , References

Data Relationships and Multivariate Applications
Introduction , Overview of Multivariate Statistical Techniques , Relating Consumer and Descriptive Data Through, Conclusions , References

Strategic Research
Introduction , Attribute Identification andClassification , Preference Mapping Revisited , ConsumerSegmentation , Claim Substantiation Revisited , Conclusions , References

Appendix A Basic Statistical Concepts for Sensory Evaluation
Appendix B Nonparametric and Binomial-Based Statistical Methods
Appendix C Analysis of Variance
Appendix D Correlation, Regression, and Measures of Association
Appendix E Statistical Power and Test Sensitivity
Appendix F Statistical Tables

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