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Ecopolis

Paul F Downton 
Springer  2009  



Hardcover  608 pp  ISBN 9781402084959      £216.00


Softcover  608 pp  ISBN 9781402096372      £70.00
This book is jointly published with CSIRO Publishing, Australia.

From 2008, for the first time in human history, half of the world's population now live in cities. Yet despite a wealth of literature on green architecture and planning, there is to date no single book which draws together theory from the full range of disciplines - from architecture, planning and ecology - which we must come to grips with if we are to design future cities which are genuinely sustainable.

Paul Downton's Ecopolis takes a major step along this path. It highlights the urgent need to understand the role of cities as both agents of change and means of survival, at a time when climate change has finally grabbed world attention, and it provides a framework for designing cities that integrates knowledge - both academic and practical from a range of relevant disciplines.

Identifying key theorists, practitioners, places and philosophies, the book provides a solid theoretical context which introduces the concept of urban fractals, and goes on to present a series of design and planning tools for achieving Sustainable Human Ecological Development (SHED). Combining knowledge from diverse fields to present a synthesis of urban ecology, the book will provide a valuable resource for students, researchers and practitioners in architecture, construction, planning, geography and the traditional life sciences.

Contents Introduction - The City Is My University.
1. The Ground Plan
1.1 The Idea of Ecopolis. 1.1.1 Projects and Praxis. 1.1.2 The Propositions. 1.1.2.1 Proposition 1: CITY-REGION: City-regions determine the ecological parameters of civilisation. 1.1.2.2 Proposition 2: INTEGRATED KNOWLEDGE: There is an imperative need to integrate extant knowledge. 1.1.2.3 Proposition 3: CULTURAL CHANGE: Creation of an ecological civilisation requires conscious, systemic cultural change. 1.1.2.4 Proposition 4: CULTURAL/URBAN FRACTALS: Demonstration projects provide the means to catalyse cultural change. 1.1.3 The Three Parts of the Dissertation. 1.2 The Purpose of Cities. 1.2.1 Defining Cities. 1.2.2 Types of Cities.

2. An Epistemology for Urban Ecology
2.1 An Heuristic Hybrid? 2.1.1 Hemisphericism and Sustainability. 2.1.2 Reconciliation of Urban and Non-urban Epistemologies. 2.1.3 Architecture, Cross-talk and Points of View. 2.1.4 City as Ecosystem. 2.1.5 Defining Urban Ecology. 2.2 Further Words on Architecture and Ecology. 2.2.1 Greening the Discourse. 2.3 Towards Sustainable Human Ecological Development. 2.4 Romantic Science. 2.4.1 Picking Flowers. 2.4.2 Objectivity, Subjectivity and the Third Way. 2.5 Adaptive Thinking and the Climates of Opinion. 2.5.1 Convenient Misrepresentations and Inconvenient Truths. 2.5.2 The Days After Tomorrow.

PART ONE: Ecopolitan CityScapes: Theory & Practice. A.1 People, Places and Philosophies.

3. Architecture, Urbanism & Ecological Perspectives.
3.1 Points of view. 3.1.1 Antecedents and Antitheses. 3.1.1.1 Gardens and Cities. 3.1.1.2 Conservative or Conservationist. 3.2 Integration. 3.2.1 The Second Generation of Ecological Design. 3.2.1.1 Four Ecological Phases of Human Existence. 3.2.1.2 Three Urban Phases of Human Settlement. 3.2.1.3 Mainstream sustainability. 3.2.2 Which Analysis? 3.2.3 Health, Technology and Ecology. 3.3 A Sense of Place. 3.3.1 Placing the Architectural Experience. 3.3.1.1 Critical Regionalism. 3.3.1.2 Growing from Place. 3.3.1.3 Being Critical of Regionalism. 3.3.1.4 Bioregionalism. 3.3.1.5 Ecological Architecture. 3.4 Changing Places. 3.4.1 Architecture for a Changing Climate.-

4. Relevant Theorists
4.1 Picture People - Visionaries and Utopians. 4.1.1 Soleri - Arcologies and Spiritual Complexification. 4.1.2 Register - From Vegetable Cars to Ecocitology. 4.1.3 Fuller - Geodesic Domes on Spaceship Earth. 4.1.4 Howard - The Garden City. 4.1.5 Morris - News From Nowhere. 4.1.6 Callenbach - Ecotopia. 4.1.7 Wright - Broadacre City. 4.2 Process People - Understanding the Nature of Cities. 4.2.1 Geddes - A View from the Outlook Tower. 4.2.2 Mumford - Cities, Technology and the Green Matrix of Regionalism. 4.2.3 McHarg - Designing With Nature. 4.2.4 Hough - Cities as Natural Process. 4.2.5 Spirn - In the Granite Garden. 4.2.6 Jacobs - The Death and Life of Cities. 4.2.7 Fisk and Vittori - Maximising the Potential of Building Systems. 4.2.8 New Alchemy and the Todds - Bioshelters and Living Machines. 4.2.9 Biosphere 2 - Off the Planet. 4.2.10 Berg and Sale - The Bioregional Imperative. 4.2.11 Papanek - Designing for the Real World. 4.2.12 Van der Ryn - Ecological Architecture and Intellectual Coherence. 4.2.13 Yeang - Architect and Bioclimatician. 4.2.14 Chinese and Russian Urban Ecologists - Red Green. 4.3 Pattern People - Putting the Pieces Together. 4.3.1 Alexander - People, Patterns, Process and the Nature of Order. 4.3.2 Mollison - The Productive Patterns of Permaculture. 4.3.3 Frampton - Critical Regionalism. 4.3.4 Brand - How Buildings Learn in the Long Now. 4.4 Pragmatic People - Getting from 'Here' to 'There'. 4.4.1 Newman and Kenworthy - Auto Dependence. 4.4.2 Engwicht - Calming the Traffic. 4.4.3 Ted Trainer - Abandoning Affluence. 4.4.4 Girardet and the Vales - Inspirational Economy and the Global Urban Condition. 4.5 Principled People. 4.5.1 Hackney and Charles - Community Architecture. 4.5.2 Day - Places of the Soul. 4.5.3 Malcolm Wells - Architecting Gently. 4.6 Village People and New Urbanists. 4.6.1 New Urbanism. 4.6.2 Corbett - Village Homes. 4.7 Political People - Energy, Structure and Citizenship. 4.7.1 Invisible Structures. 4.7.2 Natural Capitalism. 4.7.3 Energy & Equity. 4.7.4 Mutual Aid. 4.7.5 Street Farming. 4.7.6 The Limits of the City.

5. The Aesthetics of Ecopolis.
5.1 Diversity of Form and Expression. 5.1.1 Hard and Soft Geometries. 5.1.2 Williams-Ellis - Portmeirion. 5.1.3 Gaudi - Catalan Gothic. 5.1.4 Hundertwasser - 'The Straight Line Is Godless, a Tool of the Devil'. 5.1.5 Albert - European Organic. 5.1.6 Lynch - The Image of the City. 5.2 Appearances Do Count. 5.2.1. Hideous Mountains. 5.2.2 A House is Not a Machine - Living Organism. 5.2.3 Nature Is Good for Us.

6. Extant Elements of the Ecocity
6.1 Agenda 21, Environment Plans & Sustainability. 6.1.1 Local Agenda 21. 6.1.1.1 Sustainability Indicators. 6.2 New Urbanism and Sustainable Houses. 6.2.1 Integral Urban or Sustainable? 6.2.2 Los Angeles EcoVillage. 6.2.2.1 Healthy Beginnings. 6.2.2.2 LA Eco-Village & LA Housing Department. 6.2.3 Village Homes. 6.2.4 Ithaca EcoVillage. 6.3 EcoUrbanism in Europe. 6.3.1 Ecological Settlement Projects in Europe . 6.3.1.1 Mixed Development in Nuremberg. 6.3.2 Recent Projects. 6.4 Bits and Pieces in 'Less Developed' Countries. 6.4.1 Sustaining the South. 6.4.2 Colonialism, Compact Cities and the Case of Calcutta. 6.4.2.1 Colonial Cousins. 6.4.2.2 Green Calcutta? 6.4.2.3 No Room for Eco-burgers.6.5 South America - Curitiba, the 'Ecocity'. 6.5.1 Parana: The Region. 6.6 South Africa - Midrand. 6.7 China. 6.7.1 Deep Waters. 6.7.2 The Rising Tide. 6.8 Southern England - Rural Urbanism in England. 6.7.1 Poundbury. 6.7.2 Beverley. 6.7.2.1 Beverley & the Later Ecocity Projects. 6.7.3 Cornish Domes - The Eden Project.

7. Ecopolis Projects in Australia
7.1 Taking the Long View. 7.2 Urban Ecology Australia. 7.2.1 A Brief History of the Organisation. 7.2.1.1 Changing the Climate of Opinion. 7.2.1.2 Challenging Negativity. 7.2.2 Promoting 'Key Developments'. 7.2.2.1 Three Fractals - Halifax, Whyalla and Christie Walk. 7.2 Context. 7.3 Process. 7.4 Built Form. 7.4.1 Analytical Diagrams of the Halifax EcoCity Project Design. 7.4.2 Urban Design Guidelines and Analytical Diagrams of the Whyalla EcoCity Development Site. 7.4.3 The Morphology of Christie Walk. 7. 5 Review & Outcomes. 7.5.1 Social Experiments. 7.5.2 The Halifax EcoCity Urban Cultural Fractal. 7.5.2.1 Sustainable Urban Neighbourhoods. 7.5.2.2 The Shopfront. 7.5.2.3 Under-Valuing the Community Sector. 7.5.2.4 Inside Views from Overseas. 7.5.3 Whyalla EcoCity Development. 7.5.3.1 Community Engagement and Cultural Impact. 7.5.4 The Christie Walk Urban Fractal. 7.5.5 Communication. 7.5.5.1 Media and Outreach. 7.5.6 Community Action. 7.5.6.1 Leadership. 7.5.6.2 Community vs. Systematic Indifference. 7.5.6.3 Human Resources. 7.5.7 Maintaining the Momentum. 7.5.7.1 Barriers. 7.5.7.2 Habits of Competition. 7.5.7.3 Make Ecocities Not War

PART TWO: Towards a Theoretical Synthesis of Ecopolis. B.1 Rebuilding the Foundations. B.1.1 Design Synthesis. B.1.1.1 Pattern Pieces. B.1.2 An Urbanism of Resistance. B.1.2.2 Technology is the Key. B.1.2.3 Essentials.- Synthesis I.

8. City Ecology.
8.1 Structures of Life. 8.1.1 Little Cities, Big Impact. 8.1.2 Architecting and Nature. 8.1.2.1 Skins and Layers. 8.1.2.2 Constantly Renewing Skins. 8.1.3 Buildings as Ecosystems. 8.1.4 City Life. 8.1.4.1 What is this Life? 8.1.4.2 Dead or Alive. 8.1.4.3 Life Form? 8.1.4.4 City Skins. 8.1.4.5 Time, and the Art of City Maintenance. 8.1.4.6 Modelling the Nature of Cities. 8.1.4.7 Evolving Solutions. 8.2 Habitats for Non-Human Species. 8.2.1 Ecological Corridors. 8.2.2 Urban Wildlife. 8.2.3 Barriers to Wildlife in the City. 8.3 Design Guidelines for Non-Human Species. 8.3.1 Healthy Habitat. 8.3.2 Edge Effects. 8.4 Adaptive Urbanism. 8.4.1 Food Security. 8.4.1.1 Equity Corridors. 8.4.2 Productive Landscapes. 8.4.2.1 City Farms. 8.4.3 Green Roofs and Walls: Architecture, Habitat and Food. 8.4.3.1 Living Skin. 8.5 Compact Cities. 8.5.1 Density and Disorder. 8.5.2 Compact, Ecological or Green? 8.6 Health and Security. 8.6.1 The Health of Cities: Holurbanism, Malurbanism & Vital Signs. 8.6.2 The Reproduction of Cities. 8.6.2.1 Holurbanism (Urban Spawn). 8.6.2.2 Malurbanism (Urban Sprawl). 8.6.3 Climate Change. 8.7 Balanced Development. 8.7.1 Search for Limits. 8.7.2 New Shores, New Edges, New Towns.- Synthesis II.

9. ABC of EcoDevelopment.
9.1 The Power of Limits. 9.1.1 Planning for the Long Now. 9.2 Invisible structures. 9.2.1 Geomancy, Sacred Space and Feng Shui. 9.2.2 Gendered Space and the Power of Form. 9.2.3 Geopolitics and Global Capital. 9.3 Democracy & Citizenship. 9.3.1 Colonisation, Consumers and Citizenship. 9.3.1.1 The Passively Educated. 9.3.2 Industrialisation and Urbanisation. 9.3.3 Governance and the Military. 9.3.4 The Politics of the City. 9.3.5 From the Invisible to the Inspirational. 9.4 Social Interaction and Some Urban Space Relationships. 9.4.1 Expropriation of the Public Domain. 9.4.1.1 Patterns of Space. 9.4.1.2 Boundary and Edge Conditions. 9.4.2 The Communal Eye. 9.4.2.1 Access and Movement. 9.4.2.2 Access - Land Use and Transportation Planning. 9.5 Economics. 9.5.1 The Development Process. 9.5.1.1 LETS. 9.5.2 Creative Investment. 9.6 Architecture. 9.6.1 Empowerment in the Built Environment. 9.6.2 Critical Regionalism and the Place of Architecture. 9.6.2.1 Regionalism and Perception. 9.6.3 Organic Architecture. 9.7 Regionalism. 9.7.1 Basic Regional Relationships. 9.7.2 Bioregionalism and the Search for Limits. 9.7.2.1 The Same Word for a Place and the People Who Live in It. 9.7.2.2 Regions, Nazism. 9.7.3 Bioregionalism Versus Balkanisation. 9.7.4 Placing. 9.7.5 Finding the Place of Cities. 9.8 After the Flood. 9.8.1 Living Cities.- Synthesis II

10. Education, Advocacy & Activism.
10.1 Agents of Change. 10.1.1 Culture and Sacrifice. 10.1.2 'Capturing the Transmitters'. 10.2 Media: Getting the Message Out. 10.2.1 Education. 10.3 Exhibitionism: Ecopolis Now! 10.3.1 The Power of the Image. 10.4 Barefoot Architecture. 10.4.1 Participation. 10.4.1.1 Successful Examples of Participation. 10.4.2 Ecopolitan Barefoot Architecture. 10.4.3 Popular Communication Methods. 10.4.4 Getting the Numbers Right. 10.4.5 Healthy Builders. 10.5 Education and Community. 10.5.1 Streets and Schooling. 10.6 Thinking Machines. 10.6.1 The Outlook Tower. 10.6.2 Fiction as Education. 10.6.3 Urban Ecology in Academia. 10.6.4 INTERNational Outreach and Education. 10.7 Shadow Plans. 10.7.1 The Birth of Shadow Planning. 10.7.2 Shadow Plans of the River Torrens Catchment Tandanya Bioregion. 10.7.2.1 Other Bioregions. 10.7.2.2 How the Process Takes Place. 10.7.2.3 Indicator Species. 10.7.3 Shadow Plans - Enabling Vision or Hopeless Fantasy? 10.7 .3.1 Kannenberg. 10.8 The City as the Basis of Social Action. 10.8.1 Red Flag. 10.8.2 Taking It to the Streets. 10.9 The Ecopolitan iPod. 10.9.1 California Dreaming and Popular Culture. 10.9.1.1 Ecopolis Now! (song). 10.10 Sound Bites and Cultural Change. 10.10.1 Ecopolis Propositions - The Sound Bite Version. 10.10.2 Accelerated Climate Change Requires Accelerated Cultural Change. 10.10.2.1 Popular Culture - Humming a Tune, Building a Shed. 10.10.2.2 Whistle While You Work.- Synthesis IV.

11. 'The SHED' - Sustainable Human Ecological Development
11.1 Introduction. 11.2 Charter of Calcutta. 11.3 The Icons . 11.4 SHED Navigation Matrix, or Concordance. 11.5 The Seven Steps of SHEDding. 11.5.1 Settling in Place: Watershed and Region - A Basis for Process. 11.5.2 Communitecology. 11.5.2.1 The Emptiness and the Way. 11.5.3 SHED 1 Shedding. 11.5.4 SHED 2 Placing. 11.5.5 SHED 3 Biozoning. 11.5.6 SHED 4 Lifelining. 11.5.7 SHED 5 Proximating. 11.5.8 SHED 6 Patterning. 11.5.9 SHED 7 Architecting. 11.5.10 SHEDding in Action - An Example. 11.6 The Ecopolis Development Principles. 11.6.0.1 Minimise Ecological Footprints (Biophysical). 11.6.0.2 Maximise Human Potential (Human Ecology). 11.6.1 EDP 1 Restore Degraded Land. 11.6.2 EDP 2 Fit the Bioregion. 11.6.3 EDP 3 Balance Development. 11.6.4 EDP 4 Create Compact Cities. 11.6.5 EDP 5 Optimise Energy Performance. 11.6.6 EDP 6 Contribute to the Economy. 11.6.7 EDP 7 Provide Health and Security. 11.6.8 EDP 8 Encourage Community. 11.6.9 EDP 9 Promote Social Justice and Enquity. 11.6.10 EDP10 Enrich History and Culture. 11.7 The Frogstick. 11.7.1 FROG 1 Air. 11.7.2 FROG 2 Water. 11.7.3 FROG 3 Earth (soil). 11.7.4 FROG 4 Fire (energy). 11.7.5 FROG 5 Biomass. 11.7.6 FROG 6 Food. 11.7.7 FROG 7 Biodiversity. 11.7.8 FROG 8 Habitat. 11.7.9 FROG 9 Ecolinks. 11.7.10 FROG 10 Resource Use. 11.7.11 Frogstick Scoresheets

12. Our Cities, Our Selves
12.1 Looking Backwards - The Case Studies. 12.1.1 Community and Patronage. 12.1.2 Cities of Imagination. 12.2 Our Cities, Our Selves. 12.2.1 A World of Cities. 12.2.2 City-Region. 12.2.3 Integrated Knowledge. 12.2.4 Cultural Change. 12.2.5 Urban Fractals. 12.3 Evolutionary Cities. 12.3.1 Culture and the Art of Lifecycle Maintenance. 12.3.2 Cities as Extensions of Human Physiology. 12.3.3 Cities for a Changing Climate. 12.3.4 Cities of the World. 12.3.5 Urban Evolutionaries. 12.4 After Words. 12.4.1 The World of our Imaginations. 12.4.2 Dancing to the Music of the Biosphere. 12.4.3 House Hold.- Appendices. 1 Nature, Form, Beauty and Biophilia. 2 Density and Urban Villages. 3 City Size: the Case of Somerset and Adelaide. 4 Adelaide, Calcutta and the Western Comfort Zone

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