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Introduction to Food Toxicology - 2nd edition

Takayuki Shibamoto and Leonard Bjeldanes 
Academic Press  March 2009  



Hardcover  320 pp  ISBN 9780123742865      £50.00
The rapidly expanding field of food safety includes many new developments in the understanding of the entire range of toxic compounds found in foods -- whether naturally occuring or having been introduced by industry or food processing methods. This second edition of Introduction to Food Toxicology explores these development while continuing to provide a core understanding of the basic principles of food toxicology. The book includes new and updated coverage of key topics including the circulatory systems and their influence on toxicity, molecular mechanisms of absorption and excretion, the multiplicity and specificity of phase I and II reactions, toxins from marine food sources including the growing number of toxins from symbiotic bacteria, algae and plankton, focus on the occurrence and modes of action of the central mycotoxins and information on emerging problems, including fumonisins, regulations, including the Food Quality Control Act, solid-pfase extraction, immuno assay, and LC/MS, mechanisms of regulation of xenobiotic activation and deactivation, developments in the modes of action and impact of natural toxins in food plants, a comprehensive review of the issues surrounding dioxins, the function of antioxidants and their toxicological aspects, acrylamide, its occurrence, toxicity and regulation on its use, phytochemicals, their beneficial effects and the modes of action of this growing group of nutraceuticals from food plants and diet and drug interactions.

Of interest to professionals as well as those in academic institutions who need to understand this steadily growing field. Upper level undergraduate students in food science, nutrition, toxicology, environmental studies, dietetics. Entry level food safety and industry professionals whose responsibilities include this area. These readers will be both continuing education credit seekers and independent readers as well. Educated consumer readers interested in food sources and public health issues. Course names: Food Toxicology; Foodborne Hazards; Nutritional Toxicology and Food Safety; Food Toxicology and Safety; Public Health

Contents

Chapter 1 - Principles of Toxicology
I. Branches of toxicology II. Dose-response III. Potency IV. Hormesis V. Margin of Safety VI. Biologic Factors That Influence Toxicity VII. Absorption VIII. Types of membrane transport IX. Toxin absorption in the alimentary tract X. Intestinal microflora XI. The Blood-Brain Barrier XII. Xenobiotic absorption into lymph XIII. Translocation XIV. Distribution XV. Storage A. Organ storage B. Lipid storage C. Bone storage XVI. Excretion XVII. Kidney XVII. Effects of maturation on kidney excretion A. Fecal excretion of xenobiotics

Chapter 2 - Determination of Toxicants in Foods
I. Sampling II. Qualitative and Quantitative Analyses of Toxicants in Foods A. Sample Preparation for Analysis of Toxicants B. Isolation and Identification by Chromatography III. Biological Determination of Toxicants A. Acute Toxicity B. Genetic Toxicity C. Bioassay D. Metabolism E. Subchronic Toxicity F. Teratogenesis G. Chronic Toxicity

Chapter 3 Biotransformation
I. Phase I reactions II. Phase II reactions III. Phase I enzymes A. Cytochrome P450 B. CYP3A4 C. CYP1B1 D. CYP2E1 IV. Peroxidases V. Flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) VI. Epoxide hydrolase (EH) VII. Esterases A. Carboxylesterases (CES) B. Paraoxonase VIII. Phase II Xenobiotic Metabolism A. Glucuronide Conjugation B. Sulfate Conjugation C. Glutathione Conjugation

Chapter 4 - Chemical carcinogenesis
I. Definitions II. Phases of Carcinogenesis A. Initiation B. Promotion C. Progression D. Angiogenesis III. Cancer Epidemiology IV. Dietary guidelines for cancer prevention

Chapter 5 - Natural Toxins in Animal Foodstuffs
I. Natural Toxins in Land Animal Foodstuffs A. Bile Acids B. Vitamin A II. Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) and Prions III. Natural Toxins in Marine Foodstuffs A. Tetrodotoxin - Puffer fish poison B. Saxitoxin Paralytic Shellfish Poison C. Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning D. Ciguatera E. NSP - Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning F. Amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) G. Voltage gated Na+ channels H. Scombroid Fish Poisoning

Chapter 6 - Toxic phytochemicals
I. Phytotoxins A. Goitrogens B. Environmental Antithyroid Substances II. Favism III. Neurolathyrism IV. Cyanogenic glycosides V. Lectins VI. Vasoactive Amines VII. Caffeine VIII. Curare IX. Strychnine X. Atropine A. Phytoalexins B. Herb-Drug Interactions

Chapter 7 - Toxins from Fungi
I. Mycotoxins A. Ergotism B. Alimentary Toxic Aleukia C. Fumonisins D. Aflatoxin E. Other mycotoxicoses II. Mushrooms

Chapter 8 - Food Contaminants from Industrial Wastes
I. Chlorinated Hydrocarbons A. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) B. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) II. Heavy Metals A. Arsenic B. Lead C. Mercury D. Cadmium

Chapter 9 - Pesticide Residues in Foods
I. What is a pesticide? II. History III. Pesticides in the Food Chain IV. Regulations V. Insecticides A. DDT B. Chlorinated Cyclodiene Insecticides C. Organophosphate Insecticides D. Carbamate Insecticides VI. Herbicides A. Chlorophenoxy Acid Esters VII. Naturally Occurring Pesticides

Chapter 10 - Food Additives
I. Regulations II. Preservatives A. Benzoic Acid B. Sorbic Acid and Potassium Sorbate C. Hydrogen Peroxide D. AF-2 [2-(-Furyl)-3-(5-nitro-2-furyl)acrylamide] III. Antioxidants A. L-Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C) B. dl-a-Tocopherol (Vitamin E) C. Propyl Gallate D. Butylated Hydroxyanisol and Butylated Hydroxytoluene IV. Sweeteners A. Saccharin and Sodium Saccharin B. Sodium Cyclamate V. Coloring Agents A. Amaranth (FD&C Red No.2) B. Tartrazine (FD&C Yellow No. 4) VI. Flavoring Agents A. Methyl Anthranilate B. Safrole (1-Allyl-3,4-Methylenedioxybenzene) C. Diacetyl (2,3-butane dione) VII. Flavor Enhancers

Chapter 11 - Toxicants Formed During Food Processing
I. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) A. Occurrence B. Benzo[a]pyrene (BP) II. Maillard Reaction Products III. Polycyclic Aromatic Amines (PAA) A. Occurrence B. Toxicity IV. N-Nitrosamines A. Precursors B. Occurrence in Various Foods C. Toxicity D. Mode of Toxic Action E. General Considerations V. Acrylamide A. Formation Mechanisms of Acrylamide in Foods B. Toxicity C. Mode of Action D. General Considerations VI. Food Irradiation

Chapter 12 - Food Factors and Health
I. Probiotcs, Prebiotics, and Synbiotics A. Probiotics B. Prebiotics C. Synbiotics II. Antioxidants A. The Role of Oxygen in Living Organisms B. In vivo Balance between Oxidants and Antioxidants C. Lipid Peroxidation D. Toxicity of RCCs III. Functional Components Found in Food for Disease Prevention

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