Physiology of Cotton
Edited by Stewart, J.M.; Oosterhuis, D.M.; Heitholt, J.J.; Mauney, J.R.
Cotton production today is not to be undertaken frivolously if one expects to profit by its production.
If cotton production is to be sustainable and produced profitably, it is essential to be knowledgeable
about the growth and development of the cotton plant and in
the adaptation of cultivars to the region as well as the technology available. In addition, those individuals
involved in growing cotton should be familiar with the use of management aids to know the most profitable
time to irrigate, apply plant growth regulators, herbicides, foliar fertilizers, insecticides, defoliants, etc.
Hardcover 564 pp ISBN 9789048131945
The chapters in this book were assembled to provide those dealing with the production
of cotton with the basic knowledge of the physiology of the plant required to manage the cotton
crop in a profitable manner.
Those dealing with the production of cotton with the basic knowledge of the physiology
of the plant required to manage the cotton crop in a profitable manner, cotton professionals
(researchers, extension personnel, crop consultants and graduate students).
Chapter 1: The Origin and Evolution of Gossypium
1. Introduction, 2. Emergence and Diversification of The Cotton Tribe, 3. Emergence and Diversification
of the Cotton Genus, 4. Biogeography and Speciation, 5. Domestication of the Cultivated Cottons, 6. Summary, 7.
Chapter 2: Germplasm Resources for Physiological Research and Development
1. Introduction, 2. Germplasm Collections, 3. Diversity Within, 4. Diversity in the Germplasm Collections, 5. Summary
Chapter 3: Morphological Alterations in Response to Management and Environment
1. Introduction, 2. Early Growth Events, 3. Temperature, 4. Water, 5. Nitrogen, 6. Growth Regulators, 7. Ozone,
Chapter 4: Physiological and Anatomical Factors Determining Fiber Structure and Utility
1. Introduction, 2. Overview of Fiber Development, 3. Fineness, 4. Length, 5. Maturity. 6. Strength, 7.
Uniformity, 8. Yield, 9. Attempts to Modify Fiber Properties, 10. Acknowledgments
Chapter 5: Germination and Seedling Development
1. Introduction, 2. Physiology of Germinating Cotton Seeds, 3. Temperature, 4. Water, Light and Cotton
Seedling Physiology, 5. Impacts of Tillage and other Soil Factors on Cotton Seedling Emergence, 6. Seedling
Disease Complex and other Biotic Stress Factors that affect Cotton Seedling Emergence, 7. Summary,
Chapter 6: Growth and Development of Root Systems
1. Introduction, 2. Anatomy of Cotton Roots, 3. Development of the Cotton Root System, 4. Factors Affecting
Cotton Root Growth, 5. Enhancement of Cotton Root Growth, 6. Methodology of Root Investigations, 7.
Conclusions and Future Directions
Chapter 7: Temporal Dynamics of Cotton Leaves And Canopies
1. Introduction, 2. Plant-crop Morphology, 3. Leaf Morphology, 4. Light Interception, 5. Photosynthetic
Light Response, 6. Photosynthesis Pattern with Leaf Age, 7. Carbon Budget - Leaf, 8. Carbon Budget - Boll, 9. Significance for Management of Cotton, 10. Summary
Chapter 8: Cotton Source/Sink Relationships
1. Introduction, 2. The Source, 3. The Sinks, 4. Summary
Chapter 9: Relation of Growth and Development to Mineral Nutrition
1. Introduction, 2. Essential Nutrients. 3. Nutrient Uptake and Distribution, 4. Effects of Cultivars on
Nutrient Uptake, 5. Boll Load/nutrient Status on Uptake and Distribution, 6. Summary
Chapter 10: Cycles and Rhythms In Cotton
1. Introduction to Biological Rhythms, 2. Biological Rhythms in Cotton, 3. Future Directions
Chapter 11: Physiology of Seed and Fiber Development
1. Introduction , 2. Fiber Initiation, 3., 4. Hormones and Embryo Development , 5. Conclusion
Chapter 12: Plant Responses to Temperature Extremes
1. Introduction, 2. Temperature Measurements, 3. Temperature Responses of Cotton Metabolism, 4. Summary
Chapter 13: Plant Responses to Salinity
1. Introduction, 2. Specific Examples of Salinity Problems, 3. Plant Responses to Salinity, 4. Boll Yield and
Fiber Quality, 5. Physiology, 6. Irrigation, 7. Other Environmental Factors, 8. Novel Sources of Salt Resistance
For Breeding, 9. Summary, 10. Acknowledgements
Chapter 14: Plant Responses to Mineral Deficiencies and Toxicities
1. Introduction, 2. Nitrogen Deficiency, 3. Phosphorus Deficiency, 4. Potassium Deficiency, 5. Calcium
Deficiency, 6. Magnesium Deficiency, 7. Sulfur Deficiency, 8. Manganese Deficiency, 9. Zinc Deficiency, 10.
Copper Deficiency, 10. Iron Deficiency, 12. Boron Deficiency, 13. Molybdenum Deficiency, 14. Toxicity, 15.
Chapter 15: Air Pollution Stress
1. Introduction, 2. Plant Exposure Techniques, 3. Ozone, 4. Sulfur Dioxide, 5. Summary
Chapter 16: Responses of Cotton to CO2 Enrichment
1. Introduction, 2. Open-topped Chamber Experiments, 3. Spar Experiments, 4. Face Experiments, 5.
Acclimation to Enrichment, 6. Co2 Delivery to Cotton Crops, 7. Future Effects of Co2 on Cotton Crops, 8.
Chapter 17: Inter-Plant Competition: Growth Responses to Plant Density and Row Spacing
1. Introduction, 2. Light Quality, 3. Growth Responses to Plant Density, 4. Plant Spacing Effects on Light
Quantity, 5. Resource Availability, 6. Plant Density and Harvest Variables, 7. Row Spacing , 8. Summary, 9.
Chapter 18: Cotton Host-Microbe Interactions
1. Introduction, 2. Beneficial Cotton-microbe Interactions, 3. Disease Interactions, 4. Summary
Chapter 19: Ecophysiology of Arbuscular Mycorrhizas In Cotton
1. When Is A Cotton Plant Not A Cotton Plant?, 2. Morphology of Arbuscular Mycorrhizas, 3. Physiology
of Arbuscular Mycorrhizas, 4. Ecology of Arbuscular Mycorrhizas in Cotton, 5. Conclusions, 6. Acknowledgments
Chapter 20: Mechanisms of Cotton Resistance to Arthropod Herbivory
1. Introduction, 2. On Plants and their Herbivores, 3. Resistance To Herbivory: at the Plant Level , 4. Resistance to
Herbivory: At the Population Level, 5. Interactions between Arthropod Pests and Other Stresses, 6. Conclusions
and Directions For Further Research, 7. Acknowledgments
Chapter 21: Effects of Environment on Fiber Quality
1. Introduction, 2. What Is Fiber Quality?, 3. Why Is Fiber Quality Important?, 4. Fiber-quality Properties Under
Genetic Control, 5. Fiber Quality, Plant Architecture And Suboptimal Growth Environment, 6. Fiber Length, 7.
Fiber Strength, 8. Fiber Maturity ([Fiber Fineness, Fiber Wall Thickening, And Micronaire), 9. Grade, 10.
Research Needs, 11. Acknowledgments
Chapter 22: Physiological Responses to Tillage Systems, Cover Crops, and Residue Management
1. Introduction, 2. Cotton Tillage Systems, 3. Early-season Responses to Tillage, 4. Fertilizer Management in
Contrasting Tillage Systems, 5. Tillage Effects on Yield and Earliness, 6. Responses to Cover Crops and
Residue Management, 7. Summary
Chapter 23: Crop Water Management to Optimize Growth and Yield
1. Optimizing Plant-water Relations at Different Growth Stages, 2. Plant-water Interactions, 3. Managing the Crops
Water Supply , 4. Summary
Chapter 24: Interpretation of Plant Mineral Status
1. Introduction, 2. Mineral Nutrient Roles, 3. Sampling Techniques And Interpretation, 4. Plant Growth And
Development, 5. Nitrogen Fertilization, 6. Phosphorus and Potassium Fertilization, 7. Summary
Chapter 25: Foliar Fertilization of Cotton
1. Introduction, 2. What is Foliar Fertilization?, 3. Mechanism of Foliar Fertilization, 4. Rate and Timing of
Foliar Fertilizers, 5. Nutrients Applied by Foliar Fertilization in Cotton, 6. Tissue Diagnoses for Foliar Fertilization,
7. Advantages and Disadvantages of Foliar Fertilization with Potassium, 8. Methods of Foliar Fertilization, 9. Summary
Chapter 26: Use of Growth Regulators in Cotton Production
1. Introduction, 2. Plant Hormones, 3. Plant Growth Regulators, 4. Summary
Chapter 27: Physiological Rationales in Plant Monitoring and Mapping
1. Introduction, 2. History of Cotton Plant Monitoring and Mapping, 3. Plant Monitoring Terms and Concepts, 4.
In Season Management Decisions, 5. Lessons learned from end of season Mapping, 6. Summary
Chapter 28: Physiological Simulation of Cotton Growth and Yield
1. Introduction, 2. Developmental , 3. Growth Processes, 4. Photosynthesis, 5. Respiration, 6. Cutout and Crop
Termination, 7. Assembling the Data for Model Development, 8. Summary and Future Research Directions, 9.
Chapter 29: Ontogeny of Cotton Seeds: Gametogenesis, Embryogenesis, Germination, and Seedling Growth
1. Introduction, 2. Megasporogenesis and Microsporogenesis, 3. Fertilization, 4. Embryogenesis, 5. Germination, 6.
Postgerminative Growth, 7. Practical Implications, 8. Acknowledgments
Chapter 30: Secondary Products
1. Introduction, 2. Volatiles, 3. Higher Molecular Weight Terpenoids, 4. Conclusion
Chapter 31: Neutral Nonstructural Carbohydrates
1. Introduction, 2. Nonstructural Leaf Carbohydrates, 3. Carbohydrates in Other Organs, 4. Carbohydrates
Secreted by Cotton Extrafloral Nectaries, 5. Honeydew Sugars, 6. Carbohydrate Measurement, 7. Summary
Chapter 32: Biochemistry of The Fiber
1. Introduction, 2. Kinetics of Fiber Growth, 3. Hormones and Fiber Development, 4. Summary
Chapter 33: Cotton Regeneration
Chapter 34: Current Status of Cotton Molecular Biology
1. Introduction, 2. Reproductive Tissues, 3. Organelles, 4. Physiological Processes, 5. Genes, Genome
Organization, and Evolutionary Studies, 6. Summary, 7. Acknowledgments
Chapter 35: Genetic Engineering Applications in Crop Improvement
1. Introduction, 2. Cotton Transformation, 3. The Scope Of Biotechnology In Cotton, 4. Colored Cotton, 5.
Oil and Protein Meal
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