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Biofilms in the food and beverage industries

Edited by P M Fratamico, B A Annous and N W Guenther 
Woodhead  September 2009  



Hardback  600 pp  ISBN 9781845694777      £170.00
  • considers fundamental aspects concerning the ecology and characteristics of biofilms and considers methods for their detection
  • examines biofilm formation by different micro-organisms such as samonella and food spoilage
  • discusses specific issues related to biofilm prevention and removal, such as cleaning and sanitation of food contact surfaces and food processing equipment
  • focuses on particular industry sectors including dairy, red meat processing and fresh produce

When bacteria attach to and colonise the surfaces of food processing equipment and foods products themselves, there is a risk that biofilms may form. Human pathogens in biofilms can be harder to remove than free microorganisms and may therefore pose a more significant food safety risk. Biofilms in the food and beverage industries reviews the formation of biofilms in these sectors and best practices for their control.

The first part of the book considers fundamental aspects such as molecular mechanisms of biofilm formation by food-associated bacteria and methods for biofilm imaging, quantification and monitoring. Part two then reviews biofilm formation by different microorganisms. Chapters in Part three focus on significant issues related to biofilm prevention and removal. Contributions on biofilms in particular food industry sectors, such as dairy and red meat processing and fresh produce, complete the collection.

With its distinguished editors and international team of contributors, Biofilms in the food and beverage industries is a highly beneficial reference for microbiologists and those in industry responsible for food safety.

Contents

PART 1 BIOFILMS IN THE FOOD AND BEVERAGE INDUSTRIES

  • Biofilms in the food and beverage industries: an introduction - E Cloete, I Molobela, Stellenbosch University, A Van Der Merwe and M Richards, University of Pretoria, South Africa
    - Introduction - Biofilm formation - Stages involved during attachment - Formation of three-dimensional structures - Microcolony formation - Biofilm maturation - Detachment and dispersal of cells from biofilms - Heterogeneity of biofilm matrix and structures involved in biofilm formation - Regulations of biofilm formation - Biofilm physiology - Microbial extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) and heir role in bifilms - Biofilm applications and problems - References
  • Molecular mechanisms involved in biofilm formation by food-associated bacteria - J Smith, P M Fratamico and G Uhlich, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS), USA
    - Introduction: overview of biofilm formation and quorum sensing - Biofilm formation and quorum sensing in bacteria - Inactivation of quorum sensing molecules and inhibition of quorum sensing - Genetic transfer in biofilms - Genomics and proteomics of biofilm formation - Research needed - Sources of further information and advice - References
  • Methods for imaging and quantifying the structure of biofilms in food processing and other environments - Z Lewandowski, Montana State University and H Beyenal, Washington State University, USA
    - Introduction - Microscopy techniques useful in biofilm studies - Enhancing the images of microorganisms in biofilms - Staining biofilm components - Quantifying biofilm structure - Conclusions and directions of future research - Sources of further information and advice - References
  • Monitoring of biofilms in the food and beverage industries - A Pereira and L F Melo, University of Porto, Portugal
    - Introduction - Monitoring approach as a strategic anti-fouling methodology - Requirements for a suitable monitoring device - Biofouling monitoring techniques - Conclusions - References
  • A centralized database for use in studying bacterial biofilms and quorum sensing in food processing and other environments: MicroBQs - X Yan and P M Fratamico, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) and Jin Gui, Walden University, USA
    - Introduction - Goal of MicroBQs - Data presentation and source of information for MicroBQs - Database contents - Web interface - Conclusions and future work - Sources for further information and advice - References

PART 2 MICROORGANISMS AND THEIR METABOLITES IN BIOFILMS

  • Biofilm formation by food spoilage microorganisms in food processing environments - D R Korber, A K Mangalappalli-Illathu and S Vidovic, University of Saskatchewan, Canada
    - Introduction - Important physiological and molecular events in biofilm formation - Organisms involved in food industry biofilms - Control of microbial biofilms - Biofilm problem areas in processing facilities - Practical considerations for biofilm control - Future trends - Sources of further information and advice - References
  • Biofilm formation by Listeria monocytogenes and transfer to foods - A Rodríguez-Lozano, Campden BRI, UK and L McLandsborough, University of Massachusetts, USA
    - Introduction - Physiology of bacteria growing in biofilms - Biofilm formation and propagation - Biofilm formation by Listeria monocytogenes - Influence of lineages on biofilm formation - L. monocytogenes biofilms and exopolymeric substances (EPS) - Conclusions - References
  • Biofilm formation by Salmonella in food processing environments - C Gamazo, University of Navarra, C Solano and I Lasa, Instituto de Agrobiotecnología y Recursos Naturales, Spain
    - Salmonellosis, one of the most prevalent food-borne diseases - Salmonella attachment, biofilm formation and molecular mechanisms involved - Resistance of Salmonella biofilms to sanitizers - Future trends and concluding remarks - Sources of further information and advice - References
  • Biofilm formation by Gram-positive bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus, Mycobacterium avium and Enterococcus spp. in food processing environments - S Langsrud, Nofima Mat, Norwegian Food Research Institute, Norway
    - Introduction - Staphylococcus aureus - Coagulase-negative staphylococci - Mycobacterium avium - Enterococcus spp - Future trends - Sources of further information and advice - References
  • Biofilm formation by spore-forming bacteria in food processing environments - D Lindsay, Fonterra Co-operative Group Limited and S Flint, Massey University, New Zealand
    - Introduction - Mesophilic endospore formers, such as Bacillus (B.) species - Biofilm formation - Thermophilic endospore formers, such as Anoxybacillus flavithermus - Biofilm formation - Future trends - Sources of further information and advice - References

PART 3 BIOFILM PREVENTION, INACTIVATION AND REMOVAL

  • Food contact surfaces, surface soiling and biofilm formation - C Faille, INRA-UR638 and B Carpentier, Agence Française de Sécurité Sanitaire des Aliments, France
    - Introduction - Range of surfaces encountered in food processing - Regulation, standards and other requirements regarding food contact surfaces for food industries - Material conditioning and ageing - Surface properties and microbial attachment - Impact of material conditioning and ageing on microbial attachment to surfaces - Surface properties and microbial persistence - Impact of material conditioning and ageing on microbial persistence; implications for food safety - Future trends - Sources of further information and advice - Acknowledgements - References
  • Cleaning and sanitation in food processing environments for the prevention of biofilm formation and biofilm removal - D Grinstead, JohnsonDiversey, Inc, USA
    - Introduction - The cleaning process - The impact of cleaning on biofilms - Use of biocides - Future trends - Conclusions - References
  • Novel methods for biofilm control and removal from food processing equipment - S Martin and H Feng, University of Illinois, USA
    - Introduction - Power ultrasound - The removal mechanism - The effect of power intensity - The effect of frequency - The synergy with other stressors - Other methods - Pulsed electric fields - Low electric fields (Ohmic heating) - References

PART 4 BIOFILMS IN PARTICULAR FOOD INDUSTRY SECTORS

  • Biofilms in red meat processing - B Carpentier, Agence Française de Sécurité Sanitaire des Aliments, France
    - Introduction - Sources of contamination - Microbial load of solid surfaces after cleaning and disinfection - Micro-organisms involved - Possible explanations of the presence of a bacterial species after cleaning and disinfection - Implications for food suitability and safety - Prevention of biofilm formation - Biofilm inactivation and removal - Future trends - Sources of further information and advice - References
  • Biofilms in dairy processing - P Bremer and B Seale, University of Otago, S Flint and J Palmer, Massey University, New Zealand
    - Introduction - The microbiological flora associated with milk and dairy manufacturing - Microorganisms in milk - Biofilms in the dairy industry - Factors affecting biofilm formation - Biofilm implications for process efficiency - Products - Control of biofilms in dairy manufacturing plants - Future trends for biofilm control in dairy manufacturing plants (DMP) - Sources of further information and advice - References
  • Biofilms and brewing - E Storgårds and O Priha, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Finland
    - Introduction - Biofilms in beer production and dispensing - Prevention of biofilm formation in breweries and in beer dispensing - Future trends - Sources of further information and advice - References
  • Biofilms in poultry processing - J W Arnold, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS)), USA
    - Introduction - Biofilm formation in poultry processing - Biofilm inactivation and removal - Prevention of biofilm formation - Future trends - Sources of further information and advice - References
  • Beneficial biofilms: wastewater and other industrial applications - N Qureshi, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS), USA
    - Introduction - Various types of biofilms - Factors enhancing biofilm formation - Biofilm reactors - Biofilms in biological wastewater treatment - Biofilms employed to treat dairy industry wastewater - Biofilms employed to treat oily sea water - Biofilms for production of industrial chemicals - Length of operation of biofilm reactors - Industrial/pilot-plant level biofilm reactors - Future trends and conclusions - Acknowledgements - References
  • Biofilms in fish processing - K Rajkowski, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS), USA
    - Introduction - The water environment - Microorganisms of concern in biofilm formation - Control or removal of biofilms during seafood processing - Prevention - References
  • Biofilms in fresh fruit and vegetables - B A Annous, J L Smith and P M Fratamico, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) and E B Solomon, DuPont Chemical Solutions Enterprise, USA
    - Introduction - Several pathogens of concern in produce - Biofilms on produce - Control of biofilms on produce and research needs - Sources of further information and advice - References

PART 5 APPENDIX

  • Sampling and quantification of biofilms in food processing and other environments - D E Nivens and B M Co, Purdue University and M J Franklin, The Center for Biofilm Engineering, USA
    - Introduction - Sampling surfaces - Quantitative detection technologies for sampling - Conclusions - Acknowledgements - References

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