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Understanding and controlling the microstructure of complex foods

Edited by D J McClements 
Woodhead Publishing  August 2007  



Hardback  792 pp  ISBN 9781845691516      £200.00
  • reviews the current understanding of significant aspects of food structure and methods for its control
  • focuses on the fundamental structural elements present in foods such as proteins and fats and the forces that hold them together
  • discusses novel analytical techniques that provide information on the morphology and behaviour of food materials
  • examines how the principles of structural design can be employed to improve the performance and functionality of foods

It is widely accepted that the creation of novel foods or improvement of existing foods largely depends on a strong understanding and awareness of the intricate interrelationship between the nanoscopic, microscopic and macroscopic features of foods and their bulk physiochemical properties, sensory attributes and healthfulness. With its distinguished editor and array of international contributors, Understanding and controlling the microstructure of complex foods provides a review of current understanding of significant aspects of food structure and methods for its control.

Part 1 focuses on the fundamental structural elements present in foods such as polysaccharides, proteins and fats and the forces which hold them together. Part 2 discusses novel analytical techniques which can provide information on the morphology and behaviour of food materials. Chapters cover atomic force microscopy, image analysis, scattering techniques and computer analysis. Chapters in Part 3 examine how the principles of structural design can be employed to improve performance and functionality of foods. The final part of the book discusses how knowledge of structural and physicochemical properties can be implemented to improve properties of specific foods such as ice-cream, spreads, protein-based drinks, chocolate and bread dough.

Understanding and controlling the microstructure of complex foods will be an essential reference for industry professionals and scientists concerned with improving the performance of existing food products and inventing novel food products.

Contents

PART 1 MICROSTRUCTURAL ELEMENTS AND THEIR INTERACTIONS

Polysaccharides: their role in food microstructure V J Morris, Institute of Food Research, UK
- Introduction - Food polysaccharides - Functional polysaccharides in food - Microstructural origins of functional properties - Polysaccharide interactions with other food components - Manipulating polysaccharide structure and function in foods - Future trends - References and further information

Proteins in food microstructure formation H H J de Jongh, Wageningen Centre for Food Sciences, The Netherlands
- Introduction - Proteins and their functional groups - Protein aggregation and network formation - Interface stabilization by proteins - Application of protein functionality - References

Structure and function of fat crystals and their role in microstructure formation in complex foods D Tang and A G Marangoni, University of Guelph, Canada
- Introduction - Physical properties of fat crystal networks - Physical models of the microstructure of fat crystal networks - Microstructure of fat crystal networks - Fractal dimensions used to quantify microstructure of fat crystal networks - Fractal dimension and crystallization kinetics - Future trends - Sources of further information and advice - References

Effects of water distribution and transport on food microstructure E Vittadini, University of Parma, Italy and Y Vodovotz, The Ohio State University, USA
- Introduction - Measuring water distribution and transport in complex systems and its effect on food microstructure - Controlling water distribution and transport to improve the quality of complex foods - Future trends - Sources of further information and advice - References

Structure and function of emulsifiers and their role in microstructure formation in complex foods N M Barfod and F V Sparso, Danisco, Denmark
- Introduction: emulsifiers in complex foods - Structure, properties and interactions of three important food emulsifiers - The role of emulsifiers in microstructure formation in complex foods - Controlling surfactant behaviour to improve microstructure in complex foods - Future trends - References

Colloidal systems in foods containing droplets and bubbles E Dickinson, University of Leeds, UK
- Introduction - Colloidal particles in complex foods - Stabilization of oil€water and air€water interfaces - Interactions of particles, droplets and bubbles in food colloids - Structure formation by particles, droplets and bubbles - Using microscopy to probe stability and instability mechanisms - Using microscopy to monitor aggregation and gelation processes - Future trends - References

Ingredient interactions in complex foods: aggregation and phase separation V B Tolstoguzov, Tolstoguzov-consulting, Switzerland
- Introduction - Macromolecular ingredient interactions - Incompatibility of biopolymers - Conclusions - Future trends and sources of further information - References

PART 2 NOVEL METHODS TO STUDY FOOD MICROSTRUCTURE

Atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques for characterizing food structure V J Morris, Institute of Food Research, UK
- Introduction - AFM and other microscopic methods - Applications of AFM in food science - Applications in food technology - Future trends - Further information - References

Confocal fluorescence microscopy (CLSM) for food structure characterisation N Lorén, M Langton and A-M Hermansson, The Swedish Institute of Food and Biotechnology, Sweden
- Introduction - Principles of modern CLSM - CLSM and the study of food structure - Application of CLSM to food systems - Measuring and modelling using CLSM images - Conclusions and future trends - References

Advances in image analysis for the study of food microstructure J M Aguilera and J C Germain, Universidad Católica de Chile, Chile
- Introduction: obtaining quantitative microstructural information about food from image analysis - Particular difficulties in image analysis - Advances in image processing and measurement tools - Advances in image analysis techniques - Future trends - Sources of further information and advice - References

Food characterisation using scattering methods T Nicolai, Université du Maine, France
- Introduction - Techniques and instruments - Advantages and disadvantages of scattering methods over other methods - Using scattering methods to study particular structures and processes - Future trends - Sources of further information and advice - References

Acoustic techniques to characterize food microstructure M Povey, University of Leeds, UK
- Introduction: using acoustic techniques to study food microstructure - Techniques and instruments used - Using ultrasonic techniques to study particular structures and processes - Advantages and disadvantages of acoustic techniques over other methods - Future trends - Sources of further information and advice - References

Modelling and computer simulation of food structures S R Euston, G Costello, M A Naser and M L Nicolosai, Heriot-Watt University, UK
- Introduction - Computer simulation techniques - Using modelling and computer simulation to study bio-molecules in foods - Using modelling and computer simulation to study colloidal phenomena in foods - Future trends - Sources of further information and advice - References

PART 3 MICROSTRUCTURAL-BASED APPROACHES TO DESIGN OF FUNCTIONALITY IN FOODS

Creation of novel microstructures through processing: structure formation in (semi-) solid food materials A J van der Goot and J Manski, Wageningen University, The Netherlands
- Introduction - The effect of processing on structure and molecular properties - Effect of deformation on food structure - Balancing deformation and solidification - Improving structure formation in (semi-) solid foods - Future trends - References

Influence of food microstructure on food rheology M A Rao, Cornell University, USA
- Introduction - The microstructure and rheology of foods - Common rheological methods: small-amplitude oscillatory, shear flow and large-deformation tests - Theoretical rheological models and their application - Structural models and analysis of rheology - Future trends - Sources of further information and advice - References

Influence of food microstructure on flavour interactions S Ghosh and J N Coupland, The Pennsylvania State University, USA
- Introduction - Thermodynamics of flavour interactions - Kinetics of flavour release - Experimental systems to validate models - Conclusions - References

Relating food microstructure to sensory quality G A van Aken, Wageningen Centre for Food Sciences and NIZO food research, The Netherlands
- Introduction: importance of studying the relationship between food microstructures and sensory properties - Methods to study the intra-oral behaviour of emulsions and other complex foods - Understanding the intra-oral behaviour of foods - Future trends - References

Physicochemical and structural aspects of lipid digestion D J McClements, E A Decker and Y Park, University of Massachusetts, USA
- Introduction - Lipids in the human diet - Physicochemical and structural aspects of lipid ingestion, digestion and absorption - Experimental studies of lipid digestion and absorption - Future trends - Further information - References

Nanoscale liquid self-assembled dispersions in foods and the delivery of functional ingredients N Garti and A Aserin, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel
- Introduction - Association nanocolloids - Micellar systems and microemulsions - Lyotropic liquid crystals (lamellar, hexagonal, cubic phase) and corresponding dispersions (cubosomes, hexosomes, micellosomes) - Conclusions - References

PART 4 MICROSTRUCTURAL APPROACHES TO IMPROVING FOOD PRODUCT QUALITY

Structure-engineering of ice-cream and foam-based foods H D Goff, University of Guelph, Canada and C Vega, University College Cork, Ireland
- Introduction - Description and formation of microstructure - Methods to study the microstructure of whipped cream, ice-cream and other foam-based foods - Future trends - Sources of further information and advice - References

The texture and microstructure of spreads A Bot, E Flöter, J G Lammers and E G Pelan, Unilever Research and Development Vlaardingen, The Netherlands
- Introduction - Emulsion microstructure: ingredients - Emulsion microstructure: processing - Spread stability during transport and storage - Analysing spread texture - Future trends - References

Microstructural approaches to the study and improvement of cheese and yogurt products J A Lucey, University of Wisconsin, USA
- Introduction - Casein micelles: the building blocks of yogurt and cheese - Structure development in cheese - Structure development in yogurt - Methods to study the microstructure of yogurt and cheese - Future trends - Sources of further information and advice - Acknowledgment - References

Microstructural aspects of protein-based drinks M Mellema and A Bot, Unilever Research and Development Vlaardingen, The Netherlands
- Introduction - Dairy drinks: an introduction - Effects of processing - Effects of stabilising hydrocolloids - Improving the nutritional quality of dairy drinks - References

The microstructure of chocolate D Rousseau, Ryerson University, Canada
- Introduction - The composition of chocolate - Fat structure-function relationship - Chocolate making process - Fat bloom - Methods to study the microstructure of chocolate - The microstructure of chocolate - Effects of processing on microstructure - Summary and future trends - Sources of further information and advice - Acknowledgements - References

Bubble formation and stabilisation in bread dough E N C Mills, L J Salt, and P J Wilde, Institute of Food Research, UK
- Introduction - Bread foam formation - Bread foam stabilisation - Liquid film composition and properties in bread foam stabilisation - Emulsifiers - Lipase - Conversion from foam to sponge - Conclusion - References

Food microstructure and shelf-life of emulsion and gel-based products G Barker and R Penfold, Institute of Food Research, UK
- Introduction - Complex food materials - Stability and control - Review of measurement techniques - Summary - References

Appendix: Magnetic resonance methods for the study of food microstructure P S Belton, University of East Anglia, UK
- Introduction - The basic concepts - The interaction of distance and time scales - Examining microstructure by relaxation times and line shapes - Microstructure from diffusion measurements - Microstructure from NMR imaging - Future trends - Sources of further information and advice - References

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Woodhead Publishing Ltd : analytical methods : food science : structure

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