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Managing allergens in food

Edited by C Mills, H Wichers and K Hoffmann-Sommergruber 
Woodhead Publishing  November 2006  



Hardcover  336 pp  ISBN 9781845690281      £155.00
  • presents a cohesive summary of recent research into safer food production
  • discusses the effects of food processing on allergens
  • an international team of editors

Controlling allergens in food is a matter of increasing importance for the food industry, especially in light of recent legislation. Effective handling of allergens depends on identifying allergenic ingredients, creating separate production lines for allergen-free products, and effective labelling to inform consumers about which products are safe to eat. Recent attention has also focused on novel methods to manage allergens in food, for example by reducing allergenicity through the prudent selection of raw food materials and improved processing techniques. This important collection provides a clear introduction to food allergens and allergy and offers a comprehensive review of current research contributing to safer food production with regard to allergens.

Part 1 discusses the diagnosis of offending foods and how allergens can affect the quality of life. Expanding on these fundamentals, Part 2 reviews the effect of different methods of food processing on allergens and novel technologies which can reduce the potency of allergens or remove them altogether from foods. The final part of the book covers the key area of risk assessment and allergen management to achieve more uniform standards within the industry. Practical strategies to improve consumer acceptance of GM foods are also discussed.

With its distinguished editors and array of international contributors, Managing allergens in food is an essential reference for producers, manufacturers, retailers and all those wishing to improve safety in the food industry.

Contents PART 1 WHAT ARE FOOD ALLERGENS AND ALLERGIES?

Food allergy: diagnosis and management M Fernández-Rivas, San Carlos Hospital, Spain and B Ballmer-Weber, University of Zürich, Switzerland
- Introduction - Offending foods - Clinical manifestations - Clinical diagnosis of food allergy - Management of food allergy - Key issues in diagnosis and management - Future trends - Sources of further information and advice - References

The immune system and allergic responses to food C Nicoletti, J Temblay and K Ivory, Institute of Food Research, UK
- Introduction - The Physiological immune response - Types of allergic reactions - Oral tolerance - The role of the gut immune system in food allergic reactions - Crossing the barrier - Altered immunoregulation in allergy - Conclusions - Acknowledgements - References

Impact of food allergies on quality of life J O€B Hourihane, Cork University Hospital, Ireland B M J de Blok and A E J Dubois , Groningen University Medical Centre, The Netherlands
- Introduction - Approaches to study quality of life - Current knowledge regarding food allergy and quality of life - Future trends - References

Allergens in food H Breiteneder, Medical University of Vienna, Austria and J A Jenkins and E N C Mills, Institute of Food Research, UK
- Introduction - The major plant and animal food allergen protein families - Cross-reactivity between protein families - Protein structure and allergenic potential of proteins - Structural approaches to reducing allergenic potential of foods - Conclusions - Acknowledgements - References

Cross-reactivity of plant allergens R de Rees, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands
- Introduction - Analysing cross-reactivity - Applications: anticipating risks from cross reactivity - Future trends - Conclusion - References

Intestinal microflora and allergic response to food C A Edwards and S. Khanna, University of Glasgow, UK, S Amarri, AUSL, Italy, J Doré, National Institute of Agonomic Research, France, A Gil, University of Granada, Spain, R Adam, Düsseldorf University Children€s Hospital, Germany and E Norrin, Karolinska Institute, Sweden
- Introduction - Infection and allergy - Intestinal microbiota in allergic infants - Modifying the gut microbiota in infants to prevent the development of allergenicity and symptoms of allergy - Future trends - Sources of further information and advice - References

PART 2 ALLERGENS IN FOODS € FROM RAW TO PROCESSED FOODS

The effects of food processing on allergens E N C Mills, A I Sancho and J Moreno, Institute of Food Research, Spain and H Kostyra, Polish academy of Sciences, Poland
- Introduction - Effects of food processing on allergen structure and interactions between food components - Processing € induced covalent modification of proteins - Food processing, the matrix and allergenic potential - Acknowledgements - References

Identifying fruit, nut and vegetable cultivars with low allergenic levels and effects of post-harvest treatments K Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Medical University of Vienna, Austria, A I Sancho, Institute of Food Research, UK and L J W J Gilissen, Plant Research International, The Netherlands
- Introduction - Apple as a model - Techniques for detecting and measuring allergen levels - Identification of cultivars low in allergenicity - Post-harvest treatments and allergen levels - Future trends - Sources of further information and advice - Acknowledgements - References

Developing allergen-free foods by genetic manipulation P R Shewry and H D Jones, Rothamsted Research, UK
- Introduction - Manipulation of gene expression in crop plants - The application of GM technology to allergen removal - Why has GM technology not been adapted for commercial production? - Acknowledgements - References

Reducing allergens in milk and milk products L Schütte and A Paschke, University of Hamburg, Germany
- Cow€s milk proteins - Factors affecting cow€s milk allergenicity - Milk products - Future trends - References

Reducing allergens in eggs and egg products S Gremmel and A Paschke, University of Hamburg, Germany
- Egg proteins - Egg white - Egg yolk - Bird-egg syndrome - Cross reactivity - Factors affecting allergenicity - Conclusions - References

Minimal processing and the allergenic properties of food H Wichers, Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Netherlands
- Introduction - Examples of the impact of traditional processing on allergenicity - Options for novel processing technology to reduce allergenicity - The need for standardisation of an assessment system to evaluate processing effects - Conclusions - References

PART 3 ASSESSING ALLERGENIC RISKS AND PRACTICAL MANAGEMENT OF ALLERGENS IN FOOD

Integrative approaches to assessing the allergenicity of foods J M Wal and M Lovik, Pharmacology and Immunology Service, France
- Introduction - Allergenic foods vs - allergens in foods - Effects of processing and digestion on the structure of the allergens and on the allergenicity - Factors influencing the development of allergic reactions - Measures of allergenicity (in vitro and in vivo tests) - Assessing individual thresholds - Post market monitoring as an additional step to increase the evidence of non-allergenicity - Conclusions - References

Detecting allergens in foods S Baumgartner, R Krska and E Welzig, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Austria
- Introduction - Methods for analysing allergenic proteins - Methods for detecting food allergens - Developing new rapid tests: dipsticks and biosensors - Future trends - Sources of further information and advice - References

Practical application of allergenic risk assessment of proteins L K Poulsen, National University Hospital, Denmark and C Bindslev-Jensen, Odense University Hospital, Denmark
- Introduction - Qualitative considerations € should the protein in question be considered as an allergen? Quantitative considerations € is the protein in question present in concentrations that may elicit symptoms in sensitized people? - Case studies relating to fish allergy - Trends in risk evaluation - References

Allergen management in the food industry R Crevel, Unilever Colworth, UK
- Introduction - Principles - Objectives - Issues associated with allergen management - Application - Future trends - Sources of further information and advice - References

Risk communication issues in food allergy L Frewer, Marketing and Consumer Behaviour Group, The Netherlands and S Pfaff, EuroHandelsinstitut, Germany
- Introduction - Effective communication about food allergy - Risk communication € an overview - Communication with food allergic patients - Communication with the population in general - Communication with health professionals - Communication with food authorities - Communication with food retailers - Communication with food manufacturers - Conclusions - Future trends - Sources of further information and advice - Acknowledgements - References

Consumer acceptance of new technologies for manipulating allergens in food S Miles, University of East Anglia, UK
- Introduction - Key factors determining consumer acceptance of new technologies - Strategies to improve acceptance of new technologies to manipulate allergens in food - Future trends - Sources of further information and advice - Acknowledgements - References

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