Natural-based polymers for biomedical applications

Edited by R L Reis, Section editors: N M Neves, J F Mano, M E Gomes, A P Marques and H S Azevedo 
Woodhead Publishing  August 2008  

Hardcover  832 pp  ISBN 9781845692643      £200.00
  • examines the sources, processing and properties of natural based polymers for biomedical applications
  • explains how the surfaces of polymer based biomaterials can be modified to improve their functionality
  • discusses the use of natural based polymers for hydrogels in tissue engineering, and inparticular natural gelling polymers for encapsulation and regenerative medicine
  • summarises the use of natural based polymers as delivery systems for drugs, hormones, enzymes and growth factors

Polymers from natural sources are particularly useful as biomaterials and in regenerative medicine, given their similarity to the extracellular matrix and other polymers in the human body. This important book reviews the wealth of research on both tried and promising new natural-based biomedical polymers, together with their applications as implantable biomaterials, controlled-release carriers or scaffolds for tissue engineering.

The first part of the book reviews the sources, processing and properties of natural-based polymers for biomedical applications. Part two describes how the surfaces of polymer-based biomaterials can be modified to improve their functionality. The third part of the book discusses the use of natural-based polymers for biodegradable scaffolds and hydrogels in tissue engineering. Building on this foundation, Part four looks at the particular use of natural-gelling polymers for encapsulation, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The penultimate group of chapters reviews the use of natural-based polymers as delivery systems for drugs, hormones, enzymes and growth factors. The final part of the book summarises research on the key issue of biocompatibility.

Natural-based polymers for biomedical applications will be a standard reference for biomedical engineers, those studying and researching in this important area, and the medical community.



Polysaccharides as carriers of bioactive agents for medical applications P Pawar, W Jadhav, S Bhusare and R Borade, Dnyanopasak College, India, S Farber, D Itzkowitz and A Domb, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel - Introduction - Starch - Cellulose - Heparinoid (sulfated polysaccharides) - Dextran - Pectin - Arabinogalactan - Drug conjugated polysaccharides - Dextrans - Mannan - Pullulan - Polysaccharides macromolecule-protein conjugates - Cationic polysaccharides for gene delivery - Diethylaminoethyl-dextran - Polysaccharide-oligoamine based conjugates - Chitosan - Applicatons of polysaccharides as drug carriers - Applications of dextran conjugates - Site-specific drug delivery - Pectin drug site specific delivery - Liposomal drug delivery - References

Purification of naturally occurring biomaterials M N Gupta, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, India - Introduction - Classes of naturally occurring biomaterials - Downstream processing of small molecular weight natural products - Purification strategies for proteins - Purification of lipids - Purification of polysaccharides - Purification of nucleic acids - Purification of complex biomaterials - Future trends - Sources of further information - Acknowledgements - References

Processing of starch-based blends for biomedical applications R A de Sousa, V M Correlo, S Chung, N M Neves, J F Mano and R L Reis, University of Minho, Portugal - Introduction - Starch - Starch-based blends - Conclusions - References

Controlling the degradation of natural polymers for biomedical applications H S Azevedo, T C Santos and R L Reis, University of Minho, Portugal - Introduction - The importance of biodegradability of natural polymers in biomedical applications - Degradation mechanisms of natural polymers and metabolic pathways for their disposal in the body - Assessing the in vitro and in vivo biodegradability of natural polymers - Controlling the degradation rate of natural polymers - Concluding remarks - Acknowledgements - References

Smart systems based on polysaccharides M N Gupta and S Raghava, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, India - What are smart materials? - Chitin and chitosan - Alginates - Carrageenans - Other miscellaneous smart polysaccharides and their applications - Polysaccharide-based composite materials - Future trends - Acknowledgement - Sources of further information and advice - References


Surface modification of natural-based biomedical polymers I Pashkuleva, P M López-Pérez and R L Reis, University of Minho, Portugal - Introduction - Some terms and classifications - Wet chemistry in surface modification - Physical methods for surface modification - Grafting - Bio-approaches: mimicking the cell-cell interactions - Future trends - Acknowledgments - References

New biomineralization strategies for the use of natural-based polymeric materials in bone-tissue engineering I B Leonor, S Gomes, P C Bessa, J F Mano and R L Reis, University of Minho and M Casal, CBMA - Molecular and Environmental Biology Center, University of Minho, Portugal - Introduction - The structure, development and mineralization of bone - Bone morphogenetic proteins in tissue engineering - Bio-inspired calcium-phosphate mineralization from solution - General remarks and future trends - Acknowledgments - References

Natural-based multilayer films for biomedical applications C Picart, Université Montpellier, France - Introduction - Physico-chemical properties - Different types of natural-based multilayer films for different applications - Bioactivity, cell adhesion, and biodegradability properties - Modulation of film mechanical properties - Future trends - Sources of further information and advice - References

Peptide modification of polysaccharide scaffolds for targeted cell signaling S Lévesque, R Wylie, Y Aizawa and M Shoichet, University of Toronto, Canada - Introduction - Polysaccharide scaffolds in tissue engineering - Peptide immobilization - Measurement - Challenges associated with peptide immobilization - Tissue engineering approaches targeting cell signalling - References


Scaffolds based on hyaluronan derivatives in biomedical applications E Tognana, Fidia Advanced Biopolymers s.r.l., Italy - Introduction - Hyaluronan - Hyaluronan-based scaffolds for biomedical applications - Clinical applications - Future trends - Sources of further information and advice - References

Electrospun elastin and collagen nanofibers and their application as biomaterials R Sallach and E Chaikof, Emory University/Georgia Institute of Technology, USA - Introduction - Electrospinning as a biomedical fabrication technology - Generation of nanofibers with controlled structures and morphology - Generation of collagen and elastin small-diameter fibers and fiber networks - Biological role of elastin - Generation of crosslinked fibers and fiber networks - Multicomponent electrospun assemblies - Future trends - References

Starch-polycaprolactone based scaffold for bone tissue engineering M E Gomes, J T Oliveira, M T Rodrigues, M I Santos, K Tuzlakoglu, C A Viegas, I R Diaz and R L Reis, University of Minho, Portugal

- Introduction - Starch+e-polycaprolactone (SPCL) fiber meshes - SPCL-based scaffold architecture, stem cell proliferation and differentiation - In vivo functionality of SPCL fiber-mesh scaffolds - Cartilage tissue engineering using SPCL fiber-mesh scaffolds - Advanced scaffold design for bone tissue engineering - Nano/micro fiber combined scaffold - innovative architecture - Conclusions - References

Chitosan-based scaffolds in orthopaedic applications K Tuzlakoglu and R L Reis, University of Minho, Portugal - Introduction: Chemical and physical structure of chitosan and its derivatives - Production methods for scaffolds based on chitosan and its composites or blends - Orthopaedic applications - Conclusions and future trends - Acknowledgements - References

Elastin-like systems for tissue engineering J Rodriguez-Cabello, A Ribeiro, J reguera, A Girotti and A Testera, Universidad de Valladolid, Spain - Introduction - Genetic engineering of protein-based polymers - Genetic strategies for synthesis of protein based polymers - State-of-the-art in genetically-engineered protein-based polymers (GEBPs) - Elastin-like polymers - Self-assembly behaviour of peptides and proteins - Self-assembly of elastin-like polymers (ELPs) - Biocompatibility of ELPs - Biomedical applications - ELPs for drug delivery - Tissue engineering - Self-assembling properties of ELPs for tissue engineering - Processability of ELPs for tissue engineering - Future trends - References

Collagen-based scaffolds for tissue engineering G Chen, N Kawazoe and T Tateishi, National Institute for Materials Science, Japan - Introduction - Structure and property of collagen - Collagen sponge - Collagen gel - Collagen€glycosoaminoglycan (GAG) scaffolds - Acellularized scaffolds - Hybrid scaffolds - Future trends - References

Polyhydroxyalkanoate and its potential for biomedical applications P Furrer and M Zinn, EMPA and S Panke, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), Switzerland - Introduction - Biosynthesis - Chemical digestion of PHA-biomass - Purification of PHA - Potential applications of PHA in medicine and pharmacy - Conclusions and future trends - References

Electrospinning of natural proteins for tissue engineering scaffolding P I Lelkes, M Li, A Perets, L Lin, J Han and D Woerdeman, Drexel University, USA - Introduction - The electrospinning process - Electrospinning natural animal polymers - Electrospinning blends of synthetic and natural polymers - Electrospinning novel natural €green€ plant polymers for tissue engineering - Soy proteins - Corn zein - Wheat gluten - Blends of synthetic and plant proteins - Cellular responses to electrospun scaffolds: does fiber diameter matter? - Conclusions and future trends - Sources of further information and advice - References


Hydrogels from polysaccharide-based materials: fundamentals and applications in regenerative medicine J T Oliveira and R L Reis, University of Minho, Portugal - Introduction: definitions and properties of hydrogels - Applications of hydrogels produced from different polysaccharides in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine - Agarose - Alginate - Carrageenan - Cellulose - Chitin/chitosan - Chondroitin sulphate - Dextran - Gellan - Hyaluronic acid - Starch - Xanthan - Conclusions - References

Alginate hydrogels as matrices for tissue engineering H Park and K-Y Lee, Hanyang University, South Korea - Introduction - Properties of alginate - Methods of gelling - Application of alginate hydrogels in tissue engineering - Summary and future trends - References

Fibrin matrices in tissue engineering B Tawil, H Duong and B Wu, University of California, USA - Introduction - Fibrin formation - Fibrin use in surgery - Fibrin matrices to deliver bioactive molecules - Fibrin - cell constructs - Mechanical characteristics of fibrin scaffolds - Future trends - Conclusions - References

Natural-based polymers for encapsulation of living cells: fundamentals, applications and challenges P De Vos, University Hospital of Groningen, The Netherlands - Introduction - Approaches to encapsulation; Materials and biocompatibility issues - Physico-chemistry of microcapsules and their biocompatibility - Immunological considerations - Conclusions and future trends - Sources of further information and advice - References

Hydrogels for spinal cord injury regeneration A J Salgado, N Sousa, N A Silva, N M Neves and R L Reis, University of Minho, Portugal - Introduction - Brief insights on central nervous system biology - Current approaches for SCI repair - Hydrogel-based systems in SCI regenerative medicine - Conclusions and future trends - Acknowledgments - References


Particles for controlled drug delivery E T Baran and R L Reis, University of Minho, Portugal - Introduction - Novel particle processing methods - Hiding particles: the stealth principle - Finding the target - Delivery of bioactive agents at the target site and novel deliveries - Viral delivery systems - Conclusions - Acknowledgements - References

Thiolated chitosans in non-invasive drug delivery A Bernkop-Schnürch, Leopold-Franzens University, Austria - Introduction - Thiolated chitosans - Properties of thiolated chitosans - Drug delivery systems - In vivo performance - Conclusions - References

Chitosan-polysaccharide blended nanoparticles for controlled drug delivery J M Alonoso and F M Goycoolea, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Spain and I Higuera-Ciapara, Centro de Investigación en Alimentación y Desarrallo, Mexico - Introduction - Polysaccharides in nanoparticle formation - Nanoparticles constituted from chitosan - Drug delivery properties and biopharmaceutical applications - Hybrid nanoparticles consisting of chitosan and other polysaccharides - Future trends - Sources of further information and advice - Acknowledgements - References


In vivo tissue response to natural-origin biomaterials T C Santos, A P Marques and R L Reis, University of Minho, Portugal - Introduction - Inflammation and foreign-body reactions to biomaterials - Role of host tissues in biomaterials implantation - Assessing the in vivo tissue responses to natural-origin biomaterials - Controlling the in vivo tissue reactions to natural-origin biomaterials - Final Remarks - Acknowledgements - References

Immunological issues in tissue engineering N Rotter, Ulm University, Germany - Introduction - Immune reactions to biomaterials - Host reactions related to the implant site - Immune reactions to different types of cells - Immune reactions to in vitro engineered tissues - Immune protection of engineered constructs - Strategies directed towards reactions to biomaterials - Strategies directed towards reactions to implanted cells - Future trends - Sources of further information and advice

Biocompatibility of hyaluronic acid: from cell recognition to therapeutic applications K Ghosh, Children€s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, USA - Introduction - Native hyaluronan - Therapeutic implications of native hyaluronan - Engineered hyaluronan - Implications for regenerative medicine - Conclusions - Future trends - References

Biocompatibility of starch-based polymers A P Marques, R P Pirraco and R L Reis, University of Minho, Portugal - Introduction - Starch-based polymers in the biomedical field - Cytocompatibility of starch-based polymers - Immunocompatibility of starch-based polymers - Conclusions - Acknowledgments - References

Vascularisation strategies in tissue engineering M I Santos and R L Reis, University of Minho, Portugal - Introduction - Biology of vascular networks - angiogenesis versus vasculogenesis - Vascularization: the hurdle of tissue engineering - Neovascularization of engineered bone - Strategies to enhance vascularization in engineered grafts - In vivo models to evaluate angiogenesis in tissue engineered products - Future trends - Sources of further information and advice - References

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