Flavours and Fragrances - Chemistry, Bioprocessing and Sustainability

R G Berger 
Springer  2007  

Hardcover  648 pp  ISBN 9783540493389      £126.00
This book is an introduction to the fascinating world of aroma chemicals, essential oils, fragrances and flavour compositions for the food, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry. The present state-of-the-art technology, the future use of resources and biotechnological approaches for the production of the respective chemical compounds are described. A large section is devoted to the description of the renewable resources of flavours: spice plants, fruits from moderate to tropical climates, vegetables, fermented and heated plants. Analytical methods, such as gas chromatography coupled to human or electronic noses or to a mass spectrometer, are outlined and consumer trends, legal and safety aspects are described. Novel renewable resources come from biotechnology. Enzymes, for example, bio-transform cheap substrates to produce flavours de novo; plant cells in culture may serve as a rich resource of genes coding for metabolic activities in transgenic producers. The book will be of great interest to scientists and engineers in the food, flavour, fragrance and pharmaceutical industries and all respective researchers in academia.

Written for food scientists, Organic chemists, biotechnologists and microbiologists in Flavour, Fragrance, Food and Pharma Industries; Food scientists in Academia; Market specialists in Flavour and Food Industry; Graduate students in Food Science and Biotechnology


The Flavour and Fragrance Industry-Past, Present, and Future, Matthias Guentert

Flavours: the Legal Framework, Dirk A Muller
Definitions Legal Positions Current Situation in the EU Expected Regulations on Flavourings in the EU in the Future Current Situation in the USA Current Situation in Japan Global Approach Legal Situation and Natural Flavourings, a Brief Reflection References

Olfaction, where Nutrition, Memory and Immunity Intersect, J Bruce German, Chahan Yeritzian, Vladimir B Tolstoguzov
Introduction Memory Consolidation-Short-Term, Long-Term and Permanent Memories Multidimensional Biomemory Flavour Sensation as a Part of Personal Dietary Choices Measuring Flavour Perception Is Influenced by Several Factors The "Melody" of Coffee Metabolomics and the Metabolic Response to Foods Profiling of Postprandial Plasma Lipid Composition Profiling Signalling Lipids Conclusion References

Chemistry of Essential Oils, K Husnu Can Ba?er, Fatih Demirci
What Is an Essential Oil? Non-terpenoid Hydrocarbons Terpenoids C Norterpenoids Phenylpropanoids Esters Lactones Phthalides Nitrogen-Containing Essential Oil Constituents Sulphur-Containing Essential Oil Constituents Isothiocyanates Impact of Chirality: Enantiomers Analysis of Essential Oils Conclusions References

Bioactivity of Essential Oils and Their Components, Adolfina R Koroch, H Rodolfo Juliani, Julio A Zygadlo
Introduction Antimicrobial Activity Antiviral Activity Antioxidant Activity Analgesic Activity Digestive Activity Anticarcinogenic Activity Semiochemical Activity Other Activities Conclusions References

Citrus Flavour , Russell Rouseff, Pilar Ruiz Perez-Cacho
Introduction Physical Characteristics of Citrus Fruit Technological Flavour Products Peel Oil Essences Petitgrain Oil Oil of Neroli Botanical Sources of Citrus Flavours Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis) Sour/Bitter Orange (C aurantium) Lemon (C lemon) Grapefruit (C paradisi) Lime (C aurantifolia) Mandarin (C reticulata) Flavour-Impact Compounds References

Fruits and Vegetables of Moderate Climate , Lars P Christensen, Merete Edelenbos, Stine Kreutzmann
Introduction Formation of Flavours in Fruits and Vegetables Compounds Formed by Degradation of Fatty Acids Compounds Formed from Amino Acids Compounds Formed from Glucosinolates Compounds of Terpenoid Origin Phenols and Related Compounds Fruits Pome Fruits Stone Fruits Berry Fruits Soft Fruits Vegetables Alliaceae Brassicaceae (Formerly Cruciferae) Cucurbitaceae Fabaceae (Formerly Leguminosae) and Solanaceae Apiaceae (Formerly Umbelliferae) Conclusions References

Tropical Fruit Flavour, Mario Roberto Marostica Jr, Glaucia Maria Pastore
Introduction Guava (Genus Psidium) Banana (Genus Musa) Mango (Mangifera indica) Melon (Cucumis melo) Papaya (Carica papaya) Passion Fruit (Passiflora edulis) Pineapple (Ananas comosus) Cupuacu (Theobroma grandiflorum) Bacuri (Platonia insignis M or Platonia sculenta) Sustainability of Tropical Cultivation References

Vanilla , H Korthou, R Verpoorte Introduction The Plant Vanillin Biosynthesis Enzymes Curing Chemistry Biotechnological Production of Vanillin Conclusions References

Flavour of Spirit Drinks: Raw Materials, Fermentation, Distillation, and Ageing , Norbert Christoph, Claudia Bauer-Christoph
Introduction Flavour Compounds in Distilled Spirits Carbonyl Compounds Aliphatic and Aromatic Alcohols Fatty Acids Esters Important Flavour Compounds from Raw Materials Distillation-Separation and Fractionation of Flavour Flavour Compounds Originating from Ageing Flavour and Flavour-Related Aspects of Distilled Spirits Wine and Wine-Pomace Brandies Fruit Spirits Grain Spirits Vodka Rum, Cachaca Juniper-, Caraway-, and Aniseed-Flavoured Spirits Tequila, Mezcal Shochu, Soju, Awamori Absinth Liqueurs and Speciality Products Sustainability in Production of Flavour of Spirits Conclusions References

Wine Aroma , Ulrich Fischer
Introduction Logic behind Varietal Aroma Chemical Basis of Varietal Aroma Monoterpenes C Norisoprenoids Methoxypyrazines Sulphur Compounds with a Thiol Function Impact of Viticulture and Growing Conditions Sun Exposure Stress-Induced Aroma Compounds Impact of Enology Grape Processing Impact of Yeast Impact of Modern Wine Technology The Mystery of Wine Ageing Conclusion References

The Maillard Reaction: Source of Flavour in Thermally Processed Foods , Donald S Mottram
Introduction The Chemistry of the Maillard Reaction Stages in the Maillard Reaction Strecker Degradation Classes of Aroma Compounds Formed in the Maillard Reaction Oxygen-Containing Compounds Nitrogen-Containing Compounds Sulphur-Containing Compounds Conclusion References

Chemical Conversions of Natural Precursors , Peter H van der Schaft
Introduction Terpenes as Renewable Resources for Terpene Flavour Molecules Pinenes from Turpentine Citral The Mint Components L-Menthol and L-Carvone Terpene Sulfur Compounds Other Terpene Derivatives Vanillin Vanillin Synthesis Vanillin Derivatives Heliotropine from Safrole Sugars as Precursors Sources of Xylose and Rhamnose Examples of Flavour Chemicals Derived from Sugars L-Cysteine and L-Methionine as Sources of Hydrogen Sulfide and Methanethiol Cysteine Methionine Chemical Conversions of Natural Precursors Obtained by Fermentation or from Residual Streams Aliphatic and Aromatic Esters Heterocyclic Flavour Molecules Conclusions References

Industrial Quality Control , Herbert J Buckenhueskes
Introduction Quality and Quality Management Systems Quality Control Physicochemical Methods Sensory Evaluation Specific Safety Aspects Microbial Aspects and Microbiological Methods Residues of Plant-Conditioning and Plant-Protective Agents Biologically Active Substances References

Advanced Instrumental Analysis and Electronic Noses , Hubert Kollmannsberger, Siegfried Nitz, Imre Blank
Introduction Multidimensional Gas Chromatography Classical Multidimensional Gas Chromatography Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography Fast Gas Chromatography Electronic Noses Catalytic or Metal Oxide Sensor Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor Conducting Polymer Sensors Acoustic Wave Sensors Mass Spectrometry Based Systems Other Sensor Technologies Data Processing Applications, Potential and Limitations Conclusions Time-Resolved Analysis of Volatile Organic Compounds Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometry Resonance-Enhanced Multiphoton Ionisation Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry References

Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry of Aroma , Werner Grosch
Introduction The GC-O Experiment Introduction Isolation of the Volatile Fraction Yield Screening for Odorants by GC-O Dilution Analysis Introduction Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis (AEDA) Aroma Extract Concentration Analysis GC-O of Static Headspace Samples Limitations of Extract Dilution Techniques Enrichment and Identification Aroma Model Quantitative Analysis Odour Activity Values Aroma Model References

Enantioselective and Isotope Analysis-Key Steps to Flavour Authentication , A Mosandl
Introduction Isotope Discrimination Enantioselectivity Enantioselective Capillary Gas Chromatography Scope Analytical Conditions Enantioselective Multidimensional Gas Chromatography Detection Systems Limitations Results and Discussion Chiral ?-Lactones and ?-Lactones -Alkylbranched Acids (Esters) Stir-Bar Sorptive Extraction-Enantioselective Multidimensional Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Tea Tree Oils Isotope Discrimination Capillary Gas Chromatography-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry Techniques Fundamentals Validation Comprehensive Authenticity Assessment (E)-?-Ionone and (E)-?-Ionone Lavender Oil Concluding Remarks References

Flavour-Isolation Techniques , Gary A Reineccius
Introduction Isolation of Flavour Compounds for Analysis Absorption (Polymer Trapping, Solid-Phase Microextraction, Stir Bar, Solid-Phase Extraction) Distillation (Simultaneous Distillation/Extraction, Vacuum Distillation) Solvent Extraction Combinations of Methods Comments on Aroma-Isolation Methods Isolation of Flavour from Plant Materials for Commercial Use Distillation (Essential Oils) Solvent Extraction (Oleoresins, Extracts, and Infusions) Cold Pressing (Citrus Oils) Isolation of Flavouring Materials from Waste Streams Spinning Cone Concentrator Absorption/Adsorption Extraction (from Gas or Liquid Streams) Using Cryogenic Traps or Solvents Membranes Summary References

Aroma Recovery by Organophilic Pervaporation , Thomas Schafer, Joao G Crespo
Membrane Processes in the Food Industry Recovery of Aromas and Aroma Profiles by Pervaporation Limitations and Technical Challenges Market Opportunities Concluding Remarks References

Encapsulation of Fragrances and Flavours: a Way to Control Odour and Aroma in Consumer Products , Jeroen J G van Soest
Introduction Encapsulation Matrix or Coating Materials Hydrophilic Matrices Processing Routes Recent Developments and Trends Performance of Fragrances in Consumer Products Market Developments and Products Conclusions References

Creation and Production of Liquid and Dry Flavours , Rainer Barnekow, Sylvia Muche, Jakob Ley, Christopher Sabater, Jens-Michael Hilmer, Gerhard Krammer
Modern Flavour Creation The Roots of Flavour Work Raw Materials-the Foundation of Every Creation Process Flavours Taste Modifiers Chemosensates Modern Tools for Flavour Development-Flavour Creation The Specifics of Flavour Application From Formula to Product Shelf-Life Stability Accelerated Shelf-Life Testing Chemical Interactions Flavour Production Liquid Flavours Dry Flavours Conclusion References

Enzymes and Flavour Biotechnology , M Menzel, P Schreier
Introduction Hydrolytic Enzymes Lipases (EC X) Glycosidases (EC X) FlavorzymeR Oxireductases Horse Liver Alcohol Dehydrogenase (EC ) Lipoxygenase (EC ) Peroxidases (EC X) Laccase (EC )/Germacrene A Hydroxylase Microbial Amine Oxidases (EC X) Vanillyl Alcohol Oxidase (EC ) Transferases Cyclodextrin Glucanotransferase (EC ) Lyases D-Fructose-,-biphosphate Aldolase (EC ) Sesquiterpene Synthase (EC ) Conclusion References

Microbial Flavour Production , Jens Schrader
Introduction and Scope Characteristics of Microbial Flavour Production Non-volatile Flavour Compounds Volatile Flavour Compounds Aliphatic Compounds Aromatic Compounds Terpenes Lactones O-Heterocycles, S- and N-Containing Compounds References

Microbial Processes , C Larroche, J -B Gros, P Fontanille
Introduction: General Concepts on Biotransformation Multiphase Systems Supercritical Fluids Ionic Liquids Organic-Aqueous Reaction Systems Solvent Selection in Organic-Aqueous Systems Molecular Toxicity of the Solvent Phase-Toxicity Effect Engineering Aspects Vapour Pressure Phase Equilibrium Activity Coefficients Contact Between Phases Mass Transfer Conclusion References

The Production of Flavours by Plant Cell Cultures , A H Scragg
Introduction Flavours Plant Cell and Tissue Culture Micropropagation Plant Cell Suspensions Biotransformation Scale-Up Discussion References

Genetic Engineering of Plants and Microbial Cells for Flavour Production , Wilfried Schwab
Genetic Engineering Terpenoids Hexenals Esters Vanillin Miscellaneous Conclusion References

Subject Index

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