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Aspergillus in the genomic era

Edited by JŠnos Varga and Robert A. Samson 
Wageningen Academic Press  2008  



Hardcover  334 pp  ISBN 9789086860654      £115.00
Aspergillus is among the economically most important fungal genera. Aspergillus species are used in the fermentation industry for the production of various enzymes, organic acids and pharmaceutically important compounds, and in Oriental food fermentations. At the same time, Aspergilli can cause opportunistic infections, and produce a range of secondary metabolites also known as mycotoxins which are harmful to humans and animals.

Due to its importance in biotechnology, medicine and foods, Aspergilli are in the forefront of studies dealing with various aspects of fungi. This is well illustrated by the fact that projects aiming at sequencing the genomes of nine species are in progress. In this book, some aspects of the biology of this genus are covered, including the biotechnological importance of Aspergilli, their role in mycotoxin contamination of food products including grapes and coffee products, and implications of biodiversity of Aspergillus populations for agriculture.

Among the clinical aspects, the role of Aspergilli in eye infections, the mechanisms of antifungal drug resistance and their molecular identification in the clinical setting are covered. Several chapters deal with the genomic aspects of Aspergilli, including the genomics of pigment biosynthesis, extracellular enzyme production, aflatoxin biosynthesis and the identification of genes taking part in sexual processes.

Additional chapters cover the variability and inheritance of mycoviruses in Aspergilli and multilocus approaches are given to clarify the evolutionary history of the genus. Finally, a new taxonomic classification of the various Aspergillus sections is given based on multilocus sequence data.

Contents

Preface

I. Phylogenetics and taxonomy of Aspergilli

  • A review of molecular phylogenetics in Aspergillus, and prospects for a robust genus-wide phylogeny, David M. Geiser, Robert A. Samson, Janos Varga, Antonis Rokas and Sarah Melissa Witiak
    Abstract, 1. Introduction, 2. Early molecular phylogenetics, 3. Multilocus approaches, 4. Successes and shortcomings, 5. Genomics, and a 'many locus' approach, References
  • Phylogeny and subgeneric taxonomy of Aspergillus, Stephen W. Peterson, Janos Varga, Jens C. Frisvad and Robert A. Samson
    Abstract, 1. Introduction, 2. Taxonomic outline of the genus Aspergillus based on phylogenetic analysis of multilocus sequence data, 3. Subgenus Nidulantes, 4. Subgenus Circumdati, 5. Subgenus Fumigati, 6. Subgenus Terrei, 7. Subgenus Aspergillus, 8. Subgenus Candidi, 9. Species excluded from the Aspergillus genus, 10. Subgeneric arrangements, 11. Conclusions, Acknowledgements, References
  • Aspergillus in the genomic era Ochratoxin A in profiling and speciation, F. Javier Cabanes and M. Rosa Bragulat
    Abstract, 1. Introduction, 2. Ochratoxin A producing fungi, 3. Methods for detecting OTA producing fungi , 4. Ochratoxin A in profiling and speciation , 5. Some problems in determining OTA production, Acknowledgements, References

II. Aspergillus genomics and genetics

  • Aspergillus genomics and DHN-melanin conidial pigmentation, Scott E. Baker
    Abstract, 1. Introduction, 2. Biochemistry and genetics of DHN-melanin production, 3. Conidial DHN-melanin pigments and genomics, 4. Conclusions and future directions, Acknowledgements, Reference
  • A genomic look at physiology and extracellular enzymes of Aspergillus in relation to utilization of plant matter, Ronald P. de Vries
    Abstract, 1. Introduction, 2. Plant polysaccharides, 3. Plant polysaccharide degradation by Aspergillus, 4. Presence of plant polysaccharide degrading functions in Aspergillus Genomes, 5. Fungal carbon catabolic pathways related to plant matter, 6. Regulatory aspects of carbon source utilisation in Aspergillus, 7. Suitability of genes encoding plant polysaccharide degrading enzymes for phylogeny, 8. Concluding remarks, References,
  • Sexual genes in the asexual filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger and related Aspergilli, Karoly Pal, Anne D. van Diepeningen, Janos Varga, Alfons J.M. Debets and Rolf F. Hoekstra
    Abstract, 1. Introduction, 2. Results, 3. Discussion, Acknowledgments, References
  • Mycoviruses in the Aspergilli, Anne D. van Diepeningen, Janos Varga, Rolf F. Hoekstra and Alfons J.M. Debets
    Abstract, 1. An introduction to mycoviruses, 2. Mycoviruses identified in different Aspergillus species, 3. Mycovirus dynamics in the black Aspergilli, 4. Mycovirus dynamics in the Aspergillus nidulans, 5. Conclusions, perspectives and future research, References

III. Aspergilli in the biotechnology and agriculture

  • Aspergillus in grapes: ecology, biodiversity and genomics, Giancarlo Perrone, Antonia Gallo, Antonia Susca and Janos Varga
    Abstract, 1. Introduction, 2. Aspergillus black rot of grapes, 3. Ecology, toxigenicity and biodiversity of black Aspergilli, 4. Structure and biosynthesis of ochratoxins , 5. Biosynthetic genes in OTA producing fungi , 6. Molecular tools for identification of black Aspergilli, 7. Managing the ochratoxin A risk in the grape-food chain, 8. Conclusions, References
  • Aspergilli and ochratoxin A in coffee, Paramee Noonim, Warapa Mahakarnchanakul, Janos Varga and Robert A. Samson
    Abstract, 1. Introduction, 2. Coffee varieties and processing, 3. Ochratoxin A contamination in coffee, 4. Ochratoxin A producing fungi in coffee, 5. Factors affecting ochratoxin production by Aspergillus spp. in coffee Beans, 6. Reduction of ochratoxin A in coffee processing, 7. Risk of OTA from coffee consumption 224 8. Conclusions, References,
  • .Genetic diversity in Aspergillus flavus and its implications for agriculture , Kenneth C. Ehrlich
    Abstract, 1. Introduction, 2. Biosynthesis, 3. Sclerotial morphotypes, 4. Vegetative compatibility and diversity , 5. Recombination as a source of diversity , 6. Evolution of the aflatoxin cluster , 7. Agriculture and A. flavus diversity, References
  • The importance of Aspergilli and regulatory aspects of Aspergillus nomenclature in biotechnology, Piet W. M. van Dijck
    Abstract, 1. History of Aspergillus in biotechnology , 2. Regulatory approval and nomenclature, 3. Commercially produced enzymes and pharmaceutical proteins, References

IV. Clinical apects of Aspergilli

  • DNA sequence based methods for species identification in the genus Aspergillus, S. Arunmozhi Balajee
    Abstract, 1. Introduction, 2. Comparative DNA sequencing strategy, 3. The genus Aspergillus, 4. Molecular identification of the infrageneric species, 5. Identification of species within the sections in the genus Aspergillus, 6. Conclusion, Disclaimer, References
  • Azole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus, Paul E. Verweij, Eveline Snelders and Willem J.G. Melchers
    Abstract, 1. Introduction, 2. Antifungal agents, 3. Intrinsic or primary resistance, 4. Evolution of resistance to antifungal drugs, 5. Azole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus , 6. Clinical implications of azole resistance , References
  • Aspergillus species in human keratomycosis, Palanisamy Manikandan, Ilona Doczi, Sandor Kocsube, Janos Varga, Tibor Mihaly Nemeth, Zsuzsanna Antal, Csaba Vagvolgyi, Madhavan Bhaskar and Laszlo Kredics
    Abstract, 1. Introduction, 2. Epidemiology of Aspergillus keratitis, 3. Clinical features of Aspergillus keratitis, 4. Morphological and molecular diagnosis of Aspergilli from human Keratomycosis, 5. Animal models for studying Aspergillus keratitis, 6. Antimycotics for the treatment of Aspergillus keratitis: antifungal susceptibilities and effectiveness for the therapy of experimental and clinical infections
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Aspergillus : Wageningen Academic Publishers : agriculture & forestry : biotechnology : clinical applications : genomics : human health : mycology : mycotoxins : phylogenetics : taxonomy

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