Crystalline Cellulose and Derivatives - Characterization and Structures

Edited by Peter Zugenmaier 
Springer  October 2007  

Hardcover  286 pp  ISBN 9783540739333      £162.00
This book constitutes a valuable, concise and up-to-date guide for the materials and life science community interested in cellulose and related materials. Reliable crystal structures of all cellulose polymorphs and cellulose derivatives determined are critically reviewed and discussed. Models are represented in graphs together with a collection of geometrical data as well as the atomic coordinates for further use. The background for fiber diffraction, computer-aided modeling and spectroscopic investigations is briefly introduced and also included are the necessary molecular data from oligosaccharides as a basis for structure evaluations. X-ray diffraction patterns and spectroscopic diagrams are presented as references to characterize cellulosic materials and to serve as fingerprint tools for the exploration of unknown specimens of cell walls and of industrially processed films and fibers as well as solid-state materials.

Cellulose as an abundant renewable material has stimulated basic and applied research throughout the years, as addressed in a historical review, and has inspired significant progress in polymer science. In recent years cellulose has gained renewed importance as a raw material and still possesses high potential for future applications. Academia and industry may equally profit from this comprehensive survey.

Written for libraries, institutes, scientists


1. Introduction
General Literature

2 History of Cellulose Research
2.1 The Concept of Cellulose, 2.2 Concepts in Structural Research of Cellulose, 2.3 Arrangements of the Cellulose Molecules in the Solid State, 2.4 Chemical Constitution of Cellulose as a Macromolecule, 2.4.1 Linkage of Cellulose - the Chain Structure of Cellulose (Freudenberg, Haworth), 2.4.2 Macromolecule Formation - Size of the Chains (Staudinger), 2.5 Historical Development of X-ray Models for Native Cellulose, References

3 Background
3.1 Diffraction, 3.2 Model Building, 3.3 Spectroscopy, 3.3.1 Optical Spectroscopy, 3.3.2 NMR Spectroscopy, 3.4 Convention for the Description of Cellulosic (Chiral) Structures, References

4 Model Compounds
4.1 Conformation and Packing Analysis, 4.2 Monomers and Dimers, 4.3 Trimers and Tetramers, 4.3.1 Conformations, 4.3.2 Packing Arrangements, 4.4 Acetyl Derivatives, References

5 Cellulose
5.1 Cellulose Polymorphy, 5.2 Characterization, 5.2.1 X-ray Characterization, 5.2.2 Spectroscopic Characterization, 5.3 Molecular and Crystal Structure, 5.3.1 Cellulose I alpha, 5.3.2 Cellulose I beta, 5.3.3 Cellulose II, 5.3.4 Cellulose III, 5.3.5 Cellulose IV, 5.4 Cellulose Solvent Complexes, 5.4.1 Cellulose II Hydrazine Complex, 5.4.2 Cellulose II Hydrate, 5.4.3 Cellulose I Ammonia I Complex, 5.4.4 Cellulose I Ethylenediamine Complex, 5.5 Sodium Cellulose, 5.5.1 Sodium Cellulose I, 5.5.2 Sodium Cellulose IV, References

6 Cellulose Derivatives
6.1 Characterization, 6.1.1 Cellulose Triacetate, 6.1.2 Experimental Data for Cellulose Tripropionate and Cellulose Acetate Dipropionate and Further Cellulose Esters, 6.2 Conformation and Packing Arrangement of CTA I, CTA II and CTA-N, 6.3 Conformation and Packing Arrangement of CDAP, 6.4 Conformation and Packing Arrangement of Cellulose Tribenzoate, 6.5 Trimethyl Cellulose and 6-O-Acetyl-2,3-di-O-methyl Cellulose, References

7 Morphology
7.1 Crystalline Domain Sizes, 7.2 Microfibrils, 7.3 Microfibrils and Fibrils, 7.4 Parallel and Antiparallel Packing Arrangements of Microfibils

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