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Sustainable Use of Forest Biomass for Energy

Edited by Röser, D.; Asikainen, A.; Raulund-Rasmussen, K.; Stupak, I. 
Springer  April 2008  



Hardcover  262 pp  ISBN 9781402050534      £117.00
Subtitled A Synthesis with Focus on the Baltic and Nordic Region this is Volume 12 in the series Managing Forest Ecosystems

With the large-scale utilization of forest biomass for energy still in its infancy, there is an urgent need to understand the short- and long-term consequences of intensive forest biomass harvesting - both on the forest ecosystem and on forest economics.

This book covers the vast body of knowledge of forest ecology and management in the Nordic-Baltic region, with the aim of bridging the gap between scientific knowledge and general principles on the one hand, and more concrete practical forest management and policy development on the other. The focus on the Nordic and Baltic countries makes it possible to compare two groups of countries in Europe which have similar ecological conditions, but substantial differences in both their economic frameworks and, consequently, their need to overcome barriers to increased use of forest biomass for energy.

In this book, Nordic and Baltic scientists from ecological, economic, social, and technological disciplines join forces to synthesize current knowledge, generate new data, describe cases, and create a solid basis for the future development of management recommendations for forest energy harvesting and wood ash recycling.

Providing tools and information for improved evaluation the real sustainability of a given management regime, this book is indispensable reading for forest scientists and managers, forest extension, forest and energy policy makers and the energy sector.

Of interest to forest scientists, forestry students, forest extension, forest resource managers, forest and energy policy makers, energy sector

Contents

Preface List of Contributors.

1. Introduction to Sustainable Utilisation of Forest Energy. A. Lunnan et al.
1.1 Introduction. 1.2 Energy policy. 1.3 Sustainable development and forest policy. 1.4 The WOOD-EN-MAN project. 1.5 References;

2. Forest Energy Resources and Potentials. D. Röser et al.
2.1 Introduction. 2.2 Natural conditions. 2.3 Types of forest bioenergy. 2.3.1 Forest types. 2.3.2 Differences among tree species. 2.3.3 Physical properties. 2.4 Present use of forest biomass for energy. 2.4.1 Firewood. 2.4.2 Primary residues. 2.4.3 Secondary residues. 2.5 Estimation of woodfuel potential. 2.5.1 Net annual increment, fellings, and roundwood balance. 2.5.2 Residues from fellings and roundwood balance. 2.6 References;

3. Effects of Very Intensive Forest Biomass Harvesting on Short and Long Term Site Productivity. K. Raulund-Rasmussen et al.
3.1 Introduction. 3.2 Nutrient fluxes to and from forest ecosystems. 3.2.1 Deposition. 3.2.2 Leaching. 3.2.3 Nutrient removals in forest biomass harvesting. 3.2.4 The soil as a source and a store of nutrients. 3.3 Assessment of long term productivity consequences of very intensive harvesting. 3.4 Case studies - examples of assessments of vulnerability and compensation recommendations. 3.5 Synthesis and nutrient compensation recommendations. 3.6 References;

4. Wood Ash Recycling - Possibilities and Risks. E. Karltun et al.
4.1 Introduction. 4.2 Wood ash properties. 4.2.1 Wood ash composition and quality. 4.2.2 Contamination risks. 4.2.3 Pre-conditioning before recycling. 4.3 Effects of wood ash application on soils. 4.3.1 Soil acidity changes. 4.3.2 Effects on microbiological processes in the soil. 4.4 Effects of wood ash application on trees. 4.4.1 Mineral soils. 4.4.2 Peat soils. 4.4.3 Tree physiology, morphology and biochemical status. 4.4.4 Effects on fine root growth, mycorrhiza and vitality. 4.5 Effects of wood ash application on ground and understorey vegetation. 4.5.1 Species composition. 4.6 History, current use and regulation of ash recycling. 4.7 Recommended doses and regulations. 4.8 References;

5. Insect Pests and Forest Biomass for Energy. L.M. Schroeder
5.1 Introduction. 5.2 Pest species. 5.2.1 The spruce bark beetle. 5.2.2 Pityogenes chalcographus. 5.2.3 The pine shoot beetles. 5.2.4 The pine weevil. 5.3 Risk for tree mortality in relation to insect density and tree vigour. 5.4 Insect reproduction in forest fuel. 5.5 Influence on regional population densities. 5.6 Risk for damage close to forest fuel piles. 5.7 Legislation. 5.8 Conclusions. 5.9 Management recommendations from an insect pest perspective. 5.10 References;

6. The Effects of Forest Biomass Harvesting on Biodiversity. M. Jonsell
6.1 Introduction. 6.2 Potential problems for biodiversity due to forest biomass harvesting. 6.3 Organisms that may be affected by bioenergy use. 6.3.1 Wood living organisms. 6.3.2 Organisms dependent on piles of logging residue. 6.4 Associations with different types of wood. 6.4.1 Tree species. 6.4.2 Sun exposure. 6.4.3 Diameters. 6.4.4 Decay stages. 6.4.5 Tree part. 6.5 Dispersal of saproxylic organisms. 6.6 Risks for species loss. 6.6.1 Processes that create dead wood in natural and managed forests. 6.6.2 Risks of species loss due to degree of sun exposure. 6.6.3 Risk of species loss due to tree species associations. 6.7 Trapping of insects in piles of logging residues. 6.8 Management recommendations. 6.8.1 Extraction of logging residues. 6.8.2 Storage of logging residues in the forest. 6.9 References;

7. Review of Recommendations for Forest Energy Harvesting and Wood Ash Recycling. I. Stupak et al. - 7.1 Introduction. 7.2 Environmental aspects. 7.2.1 Soil nutrient fertility. 7.2.2 Soil organic matter and carbon storage. 7.2.3 Wood ash recycling and other nutrient compensation. 7.2.4 Hydrology and water. 7.2.5 Biodiversity. 7.2.6 Insect pests and fungal diseases. 7.2.7 Harvesting damages. 7.3 Silvicultural aspects. 7.3.1 Woodfuel from early thinnings. 7.3.2 Logging residues from forest regeneration. 7.3.3 Stump harvesting. 7.3.4 Storage. 7.4 Costs, technical, and logistic aspects. 7.4.1 Existing recommendations and guidelines. 7.4.2 Harvesting of forest fuel - overview of cost factors. 7.4.3 Accessibility. 7.4.4 Density, amount of harvestable fuel, and forwarding distance. 7.4.5 Quality of chips. 7.4.6 Storage of harvested material to buffer demand. 7.4.7 Harvesting methods. 7.5 Economic aspects. 7.6 Social and health aspects. 7.7 Landscape, archaeology, culture, non-wood goods. 7.8 Benefit and drawback trade-offs. 7.9 Conclusions. 7.10 References;

8. Policy and Economic Aspects of Forest Energy Utilisation. A. Lunnan et al
8.1 Introduction. 8.2 Sustainability from an economic point of view. 8.2.1 Sustainable production of woody biomass. 8.2.2 Sustainable use of woody biomass. 8.3 Constraints and measures of bioenergy utilisation. 8.4 Supply of wood-based biomass for energy. 8.5 The market for wood for energy. 8.6 Regional co-operation and impacts. 8.7 External effects € economic and regulatory aspects. 8.7.1 Investment programmes. 8.7.2 Joint implementation. 8.7.3 Green electricity - Green Certificates. 8.7.4 Bioenergy-based thermal production. 8.7.5 Promotion and use of biofuel for transport. 8.8 Conclusions. 8.9 References;

9. EnerTree - Decision Support Tool to Analyse Forest Biomass Extraction Scenarios. K. Pasanen et al.
9.1 Introduction. 9.2 Decision making on forest energy by forest owners. 9.3 EnerTree. 9.3.1 Model structure. 9.3.2 Decision environment. 9.3.3 Input variables. 9.3.4 Stand characteristics. 9.3.5 Growth and harvesting simulations. 9.3.6 Decision criteria and alternative scenarios. 9.4 EnerTree example calculation. 9.5 Evaluation and future developments. 9.6 References;

Index

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