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Cellulose: Molecular and Structural Biology

Edited by Brown, R. Malcolm Jr.; Saxena, Inder M. 
Springer  2007  



Hardcover  379 pp  ISBN 9781402053320      £144.00
This book contains selected articles on the Synthesis, Structure, and Applications of Cellulose.

It is an up-to-date treatise on the most advanced and provocative research into the biosynthesis, structure, and applications of nature€s most abundant macromolecule and renewable resource, cellulose.

Molecular, biochemical, and evolutionary aspects of cellulose biosynthesis are reviewed in a variety of living organisms, including cyanobacteria, eubacteria, (Acetobacter, Salmonella, and E. coli), vascular plants (including Arabidopsis, forest trees, and maize), and tunicates.

Phylogenetic analysis, molecular genetics, and the potential for metabolic engineering are also presented.

Novel structural approaches include the macromolecular structure of the synthesizing units, the terminal complexes as well as the cellulose product in its many forms are also included. Novel applications using cellulose include smart materials, carbonised cellulose, and biomedical applications.

First hand information from the leading researchers distinguishes this work from other books on cellulose.

Of interest to post-graduate students, researchers, experts in the fields of molecular, cell, developmental and structural biology as well as polymer science, forestry, textiles, and biotechnology.

Contents

Chapter 1: Many Paths up the Mountain: Tracking the Evolution of Cellulose Biosynthesis, David R. Nobles, Jr. and R. Malcolm Brown, Jr.

  • Introduction
  • Sequence Comparisons
  • Eukaryotic Cellulose Synthases
  • Bacterial Gene Clusters
  • Novel Gene Clusters
  • Concluding Remarks

Chapter 2: Evolution of the Cellulose Synthase (CesA) Gene Family: Insights from Green Algae and Seedless Plants, Alison W. Roberts and Eric Roberts

  • Overview
  • The Prokaryotic Ancestry of Eukaryotic CesAs
  • Green Algal CesAs and the Evolution of Terminal Complexes
  • CesA Diversification and the Evolution of Land Plants
  • Analysis of CesA Function by Targetted Transformation in P. patens

Chapter 3: The Cellulose Synthase Superfamily, Heather L. Youngs, Thorsten Hamann, Erin Osborne and Chris Somerville

  • Introduction
  • Identification of Cellulose Synthase
  • Toward a functional analysis of cellulose synthase
  • Identification of the cellulose synthase-like genes

Chapter 4: Cellulose Synthesis in the Arabidopsis Secondary Cell Wall, Neil G. Taylor and Simon R. Turner.

  • Introduction
  • irx mutant isolation and characterisation
  • Three CesAs are required for secondary cell wall cellulose synthesis
  • Function of multiple CesA proteins during cellulose synthesis
  • Localisation of CesA proteins
  • irx2 is an allele of Korrigan
  • Alternative approaches to studying cellulose synthesis in the secondary cell wall
  • Conclusions

Chapter 5: From Cellulose to Mechanical Strength: Relationship of the Cellulose Synthase Genes to Dry Matter Accumulation in Maize, Roberto Barreiro and Kanwarpal S. Dhugga

  • Introduction
  • Role of Cellulose in Stalk Strength
  • Carbon Flux through Cellulose Synthase
  • Alteration of Cellulose Formation in Plants
  • Mass Action and Metabolic Control
  • The Cellulose Synthase Gene Family
  • Expression Analysis of the ZmCesA gene family
  • Future Transgeneic Work Rationale
  • Summary

Chapter 6: Cellulose Biosynthesis in Forest Trees, Kristina Blomqvist, Soraya Djerbi, Henrik Aspeborg, and Tuula T. Teeri

  • The Properties of Wood
  • Cellulose Synthesis
  • In vitro Cellulose Synthesis

Chapter 7: Cellulose Biosynthesis in Enterobacteriaceae, Ute Römling

  • Introduction
  • The cellulose biosynthesis operon in Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli
  • Regulation of the expression of the bcsABZC operon
  • Regulation of cellulose biosynthesis
  • Regulation of csgD expression
  • Function of AdrA
  • Occurrence of the cellulose biosynthesis operon among enterobacterial species
  • Differential expression of cellulose among Enterobacteriaceae
  • Coexpression of cellulose with curli fimbriae
  • Conclusions

Chapter 8: In vitro Synthesis and Analysis of Plant (1,3)-beta-D-glucans and Cellulose: A Key Step Towards the Characterization of Glucan Synthases, Vincent Bulone

  • Introduction
  • In vitro approaches for the study of ?-glucan synthesis

Chapter 9: Substrate Supply for Cellulose Synthesis and its Stress Sensitivity in the Cotton Fiber, Candace H. Haigler

  • Introduction
  • Overview of Cotton Fiber Cellulose Biogenesis
  • Substrate Supply for Cotton Fiber Cellulose Biogenesis
  • Intra-fiber sucrose synthesis as a source of carbon for secondary wall cellulose synthesis
  • A role for sucrose phosphate synthase in intra-fiber cellulose synthesis
  • Stress sensitivity of Cellulose Synthesis

Chapter 10: A Perspective on the Assembly of Cellulose-synthesizing Complexes: Possible Role of KORRIGAN and Microtubules in Cellulose Synthesis in Plants, Inder M. Saxena and R. Malcolm Brown, Jr.

  • Introduction
  • Structure and composition of cellulose-synthesizing complexes
  • Stages in the assembly of the rosette terminal complex in plants
  • Possible role of KORRIGAN in the digestion of glucan chains and in the second stage of the assembly of the terminal complex
  • Role of microtubules in cellulose biosynthesis
  • Summary

Chapter 11: How Cellulose Synthase Density in the Plasma Membrane may Dictate Cell Wall Texture, Anne Mie Emons, Miriam Akkerman, Michel Ebskamp, Jan Schel and Bela Mudler.

  • Textures of Cellulose Microfibrils
  • Hypothesis about Cellulose Microfibril Ordering Mechanisms
  • The geometrical model for cellulose microfibril orientation
  • A role for cortical microtubules in localizing cell wall deposition
  • Criticism on the geometrical model
  • Outlook on the verification/falsification of the geometrical theory

Chapter 12: Cellulose Synthesizing Complexes of a Dinoflagellate and other Unique Algae, Kazuo Okuda and Satoko Sekida

  • Introduction
  • Assembly of cellulose microfibrils in dinoflagellates
  • Occurrence of distinct TCs in the Heterokontophyta
  • Diversification in cellulose microfibril assembly

Chapter 13: Biogenesis and Function of Cellulose in the Tunicates, Satoshi Kimura and Takao Itoh

  • Introduction
  • Texture of the Tunic in the Ascidians
  • Cellulose Synthesizing Terminal Complexes in the Ascidians
  • A Novel Cellulose-Synthesizing Site in the Tunicates
  • Occurrence of a Cellulose Network in the Hemocoel of Ascidians
  • Structure and Function of the Tunic Cord in the Ascidians
  • Occurrence of High;y Crystalline Cellulose in the Most Primitive Tunicate, the Appendicularians
  • Origin of Cellulose Synthase in the Tunicates
  • Summary

Chapter 14: Immunogold Labelling of Cellulose-synthesizing Terminal Complexes, Takao Itoh, Satoshi Kimura, and R. Malcolm Brown, Jr.

  • Introduction
  • The Cellulose Synthesizing Machinery (terminal complexes)
  • Advances in the understanding of Cellulose Synthases
  • How to Prove if the Rosette or Linear TC is the Cellulose Synthesizing Machinery
  • Labeling of Freeze Fracture Replicas
  • Specific Labeling of Rosette TCs
  • Specific Labeling of Linear TCs
  • The Mechanism of Labeling of Cellulose Synthases
  • Future perspectives on SDS-FRL and research in Cellulose Biosynthesis

Chapter 15: Cellulose Shapes, Alfred D. French and Glenn P. Johnson

  • Introduction v Cellulose Polymorphy and Crystal Structures
  • Other Cellulosic Polymers
  • Information from Small Molecules in Self-Crystals and Protein-Carbohydrate Complexes
  • The N,R to n,h Conversion Map
  • Crystal Structures in N,R Space
  • Computerized Energy Calculations Based on Molecular Models
  • Summary

Chapter 16: Nematic Ordered Cellulose: Its Structure and Properties, Tetsuo Kondo

  • Introduction
  • Structure of Nematic Ordered Cellulose (NOC)
  • Properties of Nematic Ordered Cellulose (NOC)
  • The Future
  • Materials and Methods

Chapter 17: Biomedical Applications of Microbial Cellulose in Burn Wound Recovery, Wojciech Czaja, Alina Krystynowicz, Marek Kawecki, Krzysztof Wysota, Stanislaw Sakiel, Piotr Wróblewski, Justyna Glik, Mariusz Nowak and Stanislaw Bielecki

  • Introduction
  • Experimental Design
  • Clinical Outcomes
  • Conclusions

Chapter 18: Cellulose as a smart material, Jaehwan Kim

  • Introduction
  • Experiments
  • Potential Applications
  • Summary
To find similar publications, click on a keyword below:
Springer : biochemistry : biodegradation : carbohydrates : cell biology : cellulose : chemistry : evolution : plant science : prokaryotes : trees and timber

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