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Modifying lipids for use in food

Edited by F Gunstone 
Woodhead  September 2006  



Hardcover  624 pp  ISBN 9781855739710      £175.00
  • reviews the range of lipids available
  • asseses techniques for modifying lipids such as fractionation and interesterification
  • considers the wide range of applications of modified lipids
  • edited by one of the world's leading experts

Oils and fats have a major impact on the nutritional and sensory quality of many foods. Food manufacturers must often modify lipid components or ingredients in food to achieve the right balance of physical, chemical and nutritional properties. Modifying lipids for use in foods reviews the range of lipids available, techniques for their modification and how they can be used in food products.

Part 1 reviews vegetable, animal, marine and microbial sources of lipids and their structure. The second part of the book discusses the range of techniques for modifying lipids such as hydrogenation, fractionation and interesterification. Finally, Part 3 considers the wide range of applications of modified lipids in such areas as dairy and bakery products, confectionary and frying oils.

With its distinguished editor and international range of contributors, Modifying lipids for use in foods will be a standard reference for dairy and other manufacturers using modified lipids.

Contents

  • Introduction - Modifying lipids - why and how? F Gunstone, Scottish Crop Research Institute, UK
    - Introduction - What properties are desired? - Methods of modifying oils and fats - Technological methods - Biological methods - References

PART 1 UNDERSTANDING FOOD LIPID STRUCTURE AND COMPOSITION

  • Vegetable sources of lipids F Gunstone, Scottish Crop Research Institute, UK
    - Introduction - Major vegetable sources of food lipids - Minor vegetable sources of food lipids - Extraction and uses - Future trends - Sources of further information and advice - References
  • Lipids from land animals M Scheeder, ETH Zurich, Switzerland
    - Introduction - Animal fats - Milk fat - Future trends - Sources of further information and advice - References
  • Fish oils and lipids from marine sources B Hjaltason, Pronova Biocare AS and G G Haraldsson, University of Iceland, Iceland
    - Introduction - Fish oils, their main characteristics and composition - Production of fish oil - Fish oil stability and protection - Commercial fish oils - Fish oil application - References
  • Lipids from microbial sources C Ratledge and S Hopkins, University of Hull, UK
    - Introduction. Oleaginous microorganisms, fatty acids and lipid accumulation. Introduction - Oleaginous microorganisms, fatty acids and lipid accumulation - Large-scale cultivation of oleaginous microorganisms, costs, oil extraction and refinement - The production of an SCO rich in y-linolenic acid (Oil of Javanicus) - Production of arachidonic acid-SCO - Production of DHA-rich SCOs - Prospects for other PUFA-SCOs - Future trends - References
  • Methods of analysis to determine the quality of oils K Warner, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, USA
    - Introduction - Methods to measure compositional attributes - Methods of measuring characteristics of edible oils - Future trends - Sources of further information - References
  • Selected topics in the chemistry and biochemistry of lipids F Gunstone, Scottish Crop Research Institute, UK
    - Introduction - Partial hydrogenation - Antioxidation, photo-oxidation, and antioxidants - Reactions of esters and other acyl compounds - Metabolism of linoleic and linolenic acids - Sources of further information - References
  • Structure and properties of fat crystal networks S Martini, T Awad and A G Marangoni, University of Guelph, Canada
    - History and introduction - Crystallization and melting - Mechanical properties and structure - Fat crystal networks and microstructure - Structuring fat crystal network using processing - Future trends - References

PART 2 MODIFYING LIPIDS FOR USE IN FOOD

  • Hydrogenation of lipids for use in food G R List, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research and J W King, University of Arkansas, USA
    - Introduction - Trans fatty acid contents of food oils - Formulation of food oils by hydrogenation (soybean based) - Source oils trans fatty acids - Mechanism of hydrogenation/isomerization - Future trends - Alternative to hydrogenation/low zero trans fats - References
  • Fractionation of lipids for use in food V Gibon, Fractionnement Tirtiaux SA, Belgium
    - Introduction - Different fractionation techniques - Crystallization of fats - The dry fractionation process - Applications - Future trends - References
  • Chemical and enzymatic interesterification of lipids for use in food X Xu, Z Guo, H Zhang, A F Vikbjerg, and M L Damstrup, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark
    - Introduction - Interesterification in general practice: an introduction of potential reactions and applications - Typical interesterification in lipid modification - Remarks and future trends - Sources of further information and advice - References
  • Plant breeding to change lipid composition for use in food D J Murphy, University of Glamorgan, UK
    - Introduction - General perspective - Plant breeding - Oil crop modification - Transgenic oil crop modification - Plant lipid manipulation in the 21st century - Future trends - Source of further information - References
  • Modifying fats of animal origin for use in food M Scheeder, ETH Zurich, Switzerland
    - Introduction - Genetic effects on the composition of animal lipids - Housing and temperature effects on adipose tissue composition - Methods of modifying animal fats by changes in diet - Technological modifications - Modified animal fats: The relevance of fortifying functional fatty acids in animal lipids - Future trends - Sources of further information and advice - References
  • PUFA production from marine sources for use in food G G Haraldsson, University of Iceland and B Hjaltason, Pronova Biocare AS, Iceland
    - Introduction - Concentration of n-3 PUFA by non-enzymatic methods - Concentration of n-3 PUFA by lipase - TAG concentrates of n-3 PUFA - Positionally labeled structured TAG derived from fish oil - MLM type structered TAG comprising pure n-3 PUFA and MCFA - Industrial aspects and future trends - References
  • Production, separation and modification of phospholipids for use in food J Pokorny, Institute of Chemical Technology, Czech Republic
    - Introduction - Separation and purification of phospholipids - Modification of phospholipids - Phospholipid functionality and uses in food processing - Future trends - Sources for further information and advice - References

PART 3 APPLICATIONS OF MODIFIED LIPIDS IN FOOD

  • Lipid emulsifiers and surfactants in dairy and bakery products H M Premlal Ranjith and U Wijewardene, Diotte Consulting and Technology Limited, UK
    - Introduction - Food emulsions - Lipid modification and processing - Factors affecting lipid emulsions - Future trends - Sources of further information and advice - References
  • Trans-free fats for use in food E Flöter and G van Duijn, Unilever Research and Development Vlaardingen, The Netherlands
    - Introduction - Requirements for trans-free fat compositions - Production of trans free fats and their application - Implementation of trans free fats into manufacturing and supply chain - Future trends - Conclusions - References
  • Reduced and zero calorie lipids in food W E Artz, University of Illinois, USA, S M Mahungu, Egerton University, Kenya and S L Hansen, Cargill Analytical Services, USA
    - Introduction - Fat substitute chemistry - Food applications - Toxicology - Future trends - References
  • Filled and artificial dairy products and altered milk fats E Hammond, Iowa State University, USA
    - Introduction - Filled and imitation dairy products - Changing milk fat composition - References
  • Chocolate and confectionery fats S Norberg, Karlshamns AB, Sweden
    - Introduction: cocoa butter and the use of modified lipids in chocolate and confectionery - Preparation and use of alternatives to cocoa butter - Improving the functionality of chocolate and confectionery with modified lipids - Future trends - Sources for further information and advice - References
  • Developments in frying oils C Gertz, Official Institute of Chemical Analysis, Germany
    - Introduction - The frying process - Chemical changes of fats and oils at frying temperature - Factors affecting quality of frying oils - Modified frying oils - Quality control and safety of fresh frying oil - Future trends - Sources of further information and advice - References
  • Speciality oils and their applications in food K Bhattacharya, International Food Science Centre A/S, Denmark
    - Introduction - Speciality oils and fats - Health benefits and claims for speciality oils - Dietary fatty acids and health effects - Designing and application of speciality oils - Use of MUFA and PUFA oils in food applications - Use of spice extracts in gourmet oils - Use of natural antioxidants - Effect of dietary fatty acids in poultry and meat - Structured lipids - Use of diglyceride oils as cooking oils - Conclusion and future trends - References
  • Applications and safety of microbial oils in food C Ratledge and S Hopkins, University of Hull, UK
    - Introduction - Uses and applications of SCOs rich in arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid - Applications of ARA-SCO and DHA-SCO for inclusion in infant formulae - Applications of DHA-rich oils for supplementation of adult diets - Other applications of DHA-rich SCOs and biomass - Safety assessments of SCOs - References
  • Use of marine PUFA concentrates G G Haraldsson, University of Iceland and B Hjaltason, Pronova Biocare AS, Iceland
    - Introduction - Food ingredients and functional foods - Dietary supplements - Pharmaceuticals - New types of concentrates - Future trends
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