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Improving the flavour of cheese

Edited by B Weimer 
Woodhead  April 2007  



Hardcover  600  ISBN 9781845690076      £180.00
  • discusses the wealth of research in the area of flavour development
  • reviews the influence of ingredients, processing and certain chemical and physical factors on cheese flavour
  • concludes with a selection of case studies on specific product types

Flavour is key to the acceptance of cheese products among consumers and is therefore a critical issue for professionals in the dairy industry. However, the manufacture of cheeses that are consistently safe and flavourful often eludes scientists. Developments such as high throughput genome sequencing and metabolite analysis are having a significant impact on research, leading to the development of new tools to control and improve the flavour of cheese. With contributions from an international array of acclaimed authors, Improving the flavour of cheese, provides crucial reviews of recent research in the field.

The book begins with a summary of cheese ripening and the compounds associated with cheese flavour. Part 1 discusses the metabolism of specific substrates to flavour compounds by microbes associated with milk and cheese. Part 2 reviews the influence of ingredients, processing and certain chemical and physical factors on cheese flavour. Part 3 addresses the measurement of cheese flavour. The book concludes with a selection of case studies on specific product types such as hard Italian, brined cheese, as well as low fat and soft-ripened cheeses.

Improving the flavour of cheese provides a unique review of emerging techniques and ideas to control the flavour of cheese. This original book will be a standard reference for those concerned with the development and manufacture of cheese.

Contents

  • Cheese manufacture and ripening and their influence on cheese flavour P L H McSweeney, University College Cork, Ireland
    - Influence of cheese manufacture on ripening and quality - Overview of cheese ripening - Bitterness - Acceleration of cheese ripening - References
  • Compounds associated with cheese flavour B Ganesan and B C Weimer, Utah State University and M C Qian and H M Burbank, Oregon State University, USA
    - Introduction - Bacteria and cheese flavour - Cheese flavour - Future trends - Sources of further information and advice - References

PART 1 MICROBIAL PHYSIOLOGY AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF CHEESE IN FLAVOUR

  • Carbohydrate metabolism and cheese flavour development M G Wilkinson, University of Limerick and K N Kilcawley, Moorepark Food Research Centre, Ireland
    - Carbohydrate compounds present in milk - Cheese manufacture and ripening - Carbohydrate metabolism and flavour formation from amino acid catabolism - Future trends - Sources of further information and advice - References
  • Amino acid metabolism in relationship to cheese flavour development B Ganesan and B C Weimer, Utah State University, USA
    - Introduction - Compounds associated with cheese flavour - Proteolysis in cheese - Amino acid metabolism - Carbohydrate starvation in LAB - The nonculturable state - Future trends - Sources of further information and advice - References
  • Lipolysis and cheese flavour development M G Wilkinson, University of Limerick, Ireland
    - Introduction - Lipolysis and cheese flavour - Identification of fat-related aroma compounds important for cheese flavour - Improving the flavour of cheese by manipulating lipolysis - Future trends - Sources of further information and advice - References
  • The relative contributions of starter cultures and non-starter bacteria to the flavour of cheese M Gobetti, M De Angelis, R Di Cagno and C G Rizzello, UniversitÓ degli studi di Bari, Italy
    - Introduction - Cheese-related microorganisms - Lactose, lactate and citrate metabolisms - Proteolysis - Lipolysis - Flavour improvement - Future directions - References
  • Starter culture development for improved cheese flavour M C Broome, Australia Starter Culture Research Centre, Australia
    - Introduction to starter cultures - Factors affecting flavour formation by starter cultures - Starter culture selection criteria - Improving the flavour potential of starter cultures - Commercial starter cultures - Future trends - Sources of further information and advice - References
  • Adjunct culture metabolism and cheese flavour M C Broome, Australia Starter Culture Research Centre, Australia
    - Introduction to adjunct cultures - Adjunct culture types - Selection of adjunct cultures - Adjunct culture metabolism in the cheese matrix - Future trends - Sources of further information and advice - References
  • Techniques for microbial species identification and characterization to identify commercially important traits D J O'Sullivan, University of Minnesota, USA
    - Introduction - Techniques for microbial species identification - Differentiation between strains within a species - Analysis of commercially important traits - Future trends - Sources of further information and advice - References
  • Genomics and cheese flavour B C Weimer, Utah State University, USA
    - Introduction - Genomics - Functional genomics - Bioinformatics and flavour - Future trends - Sources of further information and advice - References

PART 2 INFLUENCE OF INGREDIENTS PROCESSING AND PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL FACTORS ON CHEESE FLAVOUR

  • The effects of milk, its ingredients and salt on cheese flavour V V Mistry, South Dakota State University, USA
    - Introduction - Source of milk - Concentrated milk - Influence of salt - Future trends - References
  • Physical factors affecting the flavour of cheese A R Hill, University of Guelph, Canada
    - Introduction - The general relationship between cheese composition, structure and flavour - General aspects of acidity in cheese - pH and the type of coagulation - Effects of pH history on cheese composition, structure and functionality - Redox history - Temperature history - Moisture - Improving cheese flavour by controlling physical factors - Sources of further information and advice - References
  • Flavourant-matrix interactions and flavour development in cheese S Rankin, University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA
    - Introduction - Experiencing cheese flavour - Phase partitioning - Impact of partitioning on flavour generation in cheese - Future trends - References
  • Starter culture production and delivery for cheese flavour I Powell, Australian Starter Culture Research Centre, Australia
    - Introduction - Sources of cultures - Strategic options - Starters, adjuncts and selection of cultures - Bacteriophages and strain selection - Characterization of cultures - Culture requirements - starter culture growth and delivery - Future trends - Sources of further information and advice - References
  • Bacteriocins: changes in cheese and flora flavour L O'Sullivan, S M Morgan and P Ross, Moorepark Food Research Centre and C Hill, University
    College Cork, Ireland - Introduction - What bacteriocins are and how they work - Bacteriocins of LAB - classification - Why are bacteriocins used in cheese? Implications for cheese manufacturers - Future trends - Sources of further information and advice - References

PART 3 MONITORING AND EVALUATING CHEESE FLAVOUR

  • Monitoring cheese ripening: new developments J Hugenholtz and J E T van Hylckama Vileg, NIZO Food Research, The Netherlands
    - Introduction - Monitoring ripening on the metabolite level - Monitoring ripening on the enzyme level - Monitoring ripening on the bacterial level - High throughput tools for monitoring cheese ripening - Future trends - References
  • Defining cheese flavour M A Drake, North Carolina State University, USA
    - Introduction - The starting point: lexicon development - Building a foundation: how the lexicon provides the platform - Flavour chemistry linkages - Understanding the consumer - A global perspective - Future trends - Sources of further information and advice - References
  • Measuring cheese flavour K Cadwallader, University of Illinois, USA
    - Introduction - Isolation of volatile components - Instrumental considerations - Linking of sensory and analytical data - Future trends - Sources of further information and advice - References
  • Hard Italian cheeses: parmigiano-reggiano and grana-padano M C Qian and H M Burbank, Oregon State University, USA
    - Introduction - Aroma analysis - Aroma compounds of parmesan and related Italian-style cheeses - References for production methods - References
  • Low temperature hard cheeses and semi-hard washed cheeses R JimÚnez-Flores and J Yee, California Polytechnic State University, USA
    - Introduction - Flavour development of low temperature hard cheeses and semi-hard cheeses - Membrane filtration processes in cheese manufacture - Microencapsulation technology in accelerated ripening of cheeses - New technological innovations for reduced-fat cheeses - Future trends - References
  • Soft-ripened and fresh cheeses: feta, quark, halloumi and related varieties E Litopoulou-Tzanetaki, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
    - Introduction - Mould ripened cheeses - Smear ripened cheeses - Microflora of cheese brines - Sensory description - New developments in starter technology - Conclusions and future trends - Sources of further information and advice - References
  • Producing low-fat cheeses J Banks, NIZO Food Research, The Netherlands
    - Introduction - Technology of manufacture - Effects of fat reduction on flavour, texture and functionality - Future trends - Sources of further information and advice - References
  • Modelling gouda ripening to predict flavour development M Verschueren, W J M Engels, J Straatsma, G van den Berg and P de Jong, NIZO Food Research, The Netherlands
    - Introduction - Modelling approach - Validation data - Examples of sub-models - Hybrid modelling: integration of sub-models - Improving the flavour of cheese by modelling - Future trends - Sources of further information and advice - References
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