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Determination of Additives in Polymers and Rubbers

T.R. Crompton 
Rapra Technology  March 2007  



Hardback  430 pp  ISBN 9781847350220      £125.00


Softback  430 pp  ISBN 9781847350008      £100.00
This book is designed as a practical text for use in the laboratories of the plastic producer and user industries and by others such as universities and institutions who are concerned with problems associated with additives and adventitious impurities in polymers.

It is now about 30 years since the author wrote his first book on this subject and much has happened in the field since then.

For example powerful new analytical tools have been made available to the chemist by a combination of various chromatographic techniques with methods of identifying separated additives and their degradation products by techniques based on infrared and mass spectrometry. In particular supercritical fluid chromatography combined with mass spectrometry has come to the fore. Combinations of polymer pyrolysis with gas chromatography with mass spectrometric identification of the pyrolysis products is throwing new light on what happens to antioxidants and other polymer additives during polymer processing and a products' life. Similarly evolved gas analysis and then thermogravimetry and dynamic scanning calorimetry is proving very useful in antioxidant loss studies.

The book is an up-to-date coverage of the present state of knowledge on the subject of polymer additive systems and as such should be extremely useful to workers in the field.

Contents

  • Direct Determination of Additives in Polymers and Rubbers
    1.1 Infrared Spectroscopic Methods 1.2 Ultraviolet Spectroscopy 1.3 Raman Spectroscopy 1.4 Mass Spectrometry 1.5 X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) 1.6 Thermal Methods of Analysis 1.6.1 Differential Scanning Calorimetry 1.6.2 Differential Thermal Analysis 1.6.3 Thermogravimetric Analyses 1.7 Vapour Phase Ultraviolet Spectroscopy 1.8 X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis 1.9 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
  • Extraction Techniques for Additives in Polymers
    2.1 Introduction 2.2 Solvent Extraction 2.2.1 Polyolefins 2.2.2 Polystyrene 2.2.3 Acrylic Polymers 2.2.4 PVC 2.2.5 Rubbers 2.2.6 Polyacrylamide 2.2.7 Polyurethane 2.2.8 Vinyl Chloride, Butadiene, Acrylonitrile, Styrene, Ethylhexyl Acrylate Copolymers 2.2.9 Other Polymers 2.3 Fractional Precipitation 2.4 Fractional Extraction 2.5 Separation by Diffusion Methods 2.6 Dialysis or Electrodialysis 2.7 Vacuum Thermal Displacement Extraction Method 2.7.1 Effects of Polymer Milling on Extraction 2.8 Solvent Extraction Infrared Spectrometry 2.9 Solvent Extraction Ultraviolet Spectroscopy 2.9.1 Ionol in Polyolefins 2.9.2 Santonox R In Polyolefins 2.9.3 Styrene Monomer 2.10 Solvent Extraction Visible Spectroscopy 2.10.1 Phenol Antioxidants 2.10.2 Amine Antioxidants 2.10.3 Tris Nonyl (Phenylated Phenyl) Phosphite 2.11 Solvent Extraction Spectrofluorimetry 2.11.1 Perkin-Elmer LS-2B Microfilter Fluorimeter 2.11.2 Antioxidants 2.12 Solvent Extraction Mass Spectrometry 2.12.1 Ultraviolet Absorbers 2.13 Solvent Extracts Electrochemical Methods 2.13.1 Acrylamide Polarography 2.13.2 Antioxidants 2.13.3 Organic Peroxides 2.13.4 Procedure 2.13.5 Calculations 2.13.6 Acrylonitrile 2.13.7 Determination of Styrene 2.13.8 Determination of Acrylonitrile 2.13.9 Organometallic Stabilisers 2.14 Chronopotentiometry 2.15 Anodic Voltammetry 2.16 Solvent Extraction Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (NMR)
  • Liquid Chromatography
    3.1 Introduction 3.1.1 The Isocratic System 3.1.2 Basic Gradient System 3.1.3 Advanced Gradient System 3.1.4 The Inert System 3.2 Chromatographic Detectors 3.2.1 Post-Column Derivatisation - Fluorescence Detectors 3.2.2 Diode Array Detectors 3.2.3 Electrochemical Detectors 3.3 Antioxidants 3.3.1 Instrumentation 3.3.2 Applications 3.4 Oligomers 3.5 Acrylic Acid Monomer 3.6 Acrylamide Monomer 3.7 Amines 3.8 Plasticisers 3.9 Additive Mixtures 3.10 High Performance Liquid Chromatography Infrared Spectroscopy 3.11 Gel Permeation Chromatography
  • Gas Chromatography
    4.1 Antioxidants 4.1.1 Secondary Antioxidants 4.2 Volatile Compounds 4.3 Monomers 4.4 Oligomers 4.5 Hindered Amine Light Stabilisers (HALS) 4.6 Plasticisers 4.7 Organic Peroxides 4.8 Rubber Antidegradants 4.9 Miscellaneous Polymer Additives 4.10 Identification of Additives by a Combination of GC and Infrared Spectroscopy 4.11 Identification of Additives by a Combination of GC and Mass Spectrometry 4.12 Pyrolysis GC
  • Thin-Layer Chromatography
    5.1 Experimental 5.1.1 Preparation of Thin-layer Plates for Analysis 5.1.2 Application of Polymer Extract to Plate 5.1.3 Selection of Chromatographic Solvent 5.1.4 Detection of Separated Compounds on the Plate 5.1.5 Evaluation of Developed Plates 5.1.6 Spectroscopic Methods 5.1.7 Optical Densiometric Analysis 5.1.8 Methods Based on Spot Size 5.2 Antioxidants 5.2.1 Determination of Santonox R 5.3 Ultraviolet Stabilisers 5.4 Plasticisers 5.5 Organotin Stabilisers 5.6 Epoxy and Other Heat Stabilisers 5.7 Optical Whiteners 5.8 Amine and Phenolic Antioxidants and Antidegradants, Guanidines and Accelerators in Rubber 5.9 Miscellaneous Additives 5.10 Combination of Thin-Layer Chromatography with Infrared Spectroscopy 5.10.1 Premigration of Plates 5.10.2 Removal of Separated Compounds from the Plate 5.10.3 Extraction of Pure Polymer Additives from Separated Adsorbent Bands 5.10.4 Preparation of Infrared Spectra Separated Additives 5.10.5 Preparation of UV Spectra of Separated Additives
  • Paper Gel Permeation Chromatography
  • Supercritical Fluid Chromatography
    7.1 Antioxidants 7.2 Oligomers 7.3 Supercritical Fluid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (SFC-MS)
  • Headspace Analysis - Volatiles
    8.1 Volatiles 8.2 Monomers 8.3 Oligomers 8.4 Miscellaneous
  • Thermal Methods
    9.1 Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry 9.2 Evolved Gas Analysis
  • Determination of Water
  • 11 Determination of Metals
    11.1 Destructive Techniques 11.1.1 Atomic Absorption Spectrometry 11.1.2 Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry 11.1.3 Atom Trapping Technique 11.1.4 Vapour Generation Atomic Absorption Spectrometry 11.1.5 Zeeman Atomic Absorption Spectrometry 11.1.6 Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry 11.1.7 Hybrid Inductively Coupled Plasma Techniques 11.1.8 Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry-Mass Spectrometry 11.1.9 Pre-concentration Atomic Absorption Spectrometry Techniques 11.1.10 Microprocessors 11.1.11 Autosamplers 11.1.12 Applications: Atomic Absorption Spectrometric Determination of Metals 11.1.13 Visible and UV Spectroscopy 11.1.14 Polarography and Voltammetry 11.2 Non-destructive Methods 11.2.1 X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry 11.2.2 Neutron Activation Analysis 11.2.3 Metal Stearate Stabilisers
  • Non-metallic Elements
    12.1 Instrumentation 12.1.1 Furnace Combustion Methods 12.1.2 Oxygen Flask Combustion Methods 12.2 Acid Digestions of Polymers 12.2.1 Chlorine 12.2.2 Nitrogen 12.2.3 Phosphorus 12.2.4 Silica 12.3 X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy 12.4 Antec 9000 Nitrogen/Sulfur Analyser

Appendix 1

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Rapra Technology : addtives, chemical : analytical methods : chemistry : mass spectrometry : plastics & polymers : rubber : spectroscopy

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