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Scallops: Biology, Ecology and Aquaculture - 2nd edition

Edited by Sandra Shumway and G. Jay Parsons 
Elsevier  March 2006  



Hardback  1500 pp  ISBN 9780444-04821      £150.00
Volume 35 in the series Developments in Aquaculture and Fisheries Science.

Scallops are among the better known shellfish and are widely distributed throughout the world. They are of great economic importance, support both commercial fisheries and mariculture efforts and occupy a unique niche in the marine environment. Contributions from world leaders in scallop research and culture cover all facets of scallop biology including anatomy, taxonomy, physiology, ecology, larval biology and neurobiology. Chapters are also devoted to diseases and parasites, genetics, population dynamics and the adductor muscle, with extensive reference lists provided for each chapter.

Since the publication of the first edition of Scallops: Biology, Ecology and Aquaculture in 1991, commercial interest in scallops has grown globally and this is reflected in the seventeen extensive chapters covering both fisheries and aquaculture for all species of scallops in all countries where they are fished or cultured. The Second Edition is the only comprehensive treatise on the biology of scallops and is the definitive reference source for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, mariculturists, managers and researchers. It is a valuable reference for anyone interested in staying abreast of the latest advances in scallops.

Of interest to fisheries, marine biologists, researchers studying shellfish and the ocean environment

Contents

Dedication
Preface
Preface from first edition
List of contributors

  • Chapter 1. New Phylogenies of the Pectinidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia): Reconciling Morphological and Molecular Approaches Thomas R. Waller 1.1 Introduction 1.1.1 Molecular genetic studies 1.1.2 Methods and materials 1.2 New observations 1.2.1 Subfamily Camptonectinae Habe, 1977 1.2.2 Subfamily Palliolinae Korobkov in Eberzin, 1960 1.2.2.1 Tribe Pseudentoliini, new tribe 1.2.2.2 Tribe Adamussiini Habe, 1977 1.2.2.3 Tribe Eburneopectinini, new tribe 1.2.2.4 Tribe Serripectinini, new tribe 1.2.2.5 Tribe Palliolini Korobkov in Eberzin, 1960 1.2.2.6 Tribe Mesopeplini, new tribe 1.2.3 Origins of the Decatopecten and Pecten Groups 1.2.4 Eastern Atlantic Pecten 1.3 Conclusions Acknowledgments References Appendix
  • Chapter 2. Development, Physiology, Behaviour and Ecology of Scallop Larvae Simon M. Cragg 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Scallop life history characteristics 2.3 Larval development 2.3.1 Embryogenesis 2.3.2 Development of the larval shell 2.3.3 Organogenesis 2.3.3.1 Development of ciliation, the prototroch and the velum 2.3.3.2 Larval mantle 2.3.3.3 Musculature 2.3.3.4 Digestive tract 2.3.3.5 Sense organs 2.3.3.6 Apical organ 2.3.3.7 Statocysts 2.3.3.8 Eye spots 2.3.3.9 Mantle ciliation 2.3.3.10 Foot 2.3.3.11 Nervous system 2.3.3.12 Other organs 2.3.4 Metamorphosis 2.4 Comparative anatomy 2.5 Functional morphology 2.5.1 Locomotion 2.5.2 Feeding 2.5.3 Respiration 2.5.4 Sensory reception 2.6 Physiology and effects of environmental variables 2.6.1 Energy reserves and feeding 2.6.2 Respiration 2.6.3 Growth 2.6.4 Biochemical events during metamorphosis 2.7 Behaviour and larval distribution 2.7.1 Characteristics of locomotion during larval development 2.7.2 Responses to stimuli 2.7.3 Distribution of larvae 2.7.4 Development and the larval environment 2.7.5 Tolerance of environmental variables 2.8 Rearing methods 2.8.1 Spawning and manipulation of zygotes 2.8.2 Feeding 2.8.3 Control of disease in cultures 2.8.4 Collection of spat from wild stocks References
  • Chapter 3. Structure and Function in Scallops Peter G. Beninger and Marcel Le Pennec 3.1 Introduction 3.1.1 An overview of the scallop body 3.2 The mantle and its derivatives 3.2.1 Gross functional anatomy 3.2.2 Microanatomy and functions 3.3 Pallial organs and particle processing 3.3.1 Gills 3.3.1.1 Gill axis and arch 3.3.1.2 Principal filaments and dorsal expansion 3.3.1.3 Ordinary filament 3.3.1.4 Haemolymph circulation in the gill 3.3.1.5 Particle processing on the gill 3.3.1.6 Particle selection at the gill 3.3.1.7 Particle retention lower size limit 3.3.1.8 Ingestion volume regulation on the gill 3.3.2 Labial palps and lips 3.3.2.1 Labial palps 3.3.2.2 Particle processing on the labial palps 3.3.2.3 Lips 3.4 Digestive system and digestion 3.4.1 Mouth and oesophagus 3.4.2 Stomach, crystalline style and gastric shield 3.4.3 The digestive gland 3.4.4 Intestine, rectum and anus 3.4.5 Digestive sites and postingestive selection 3.5 Cardio-Vascular system 3.5.1 General circulation 3.5.1.1 The arterial system 3.5.1.1.1 Anterior aorta 3.5.1.1.2 Posterior aorta 3.5.1.2 The venous system 3.5.2 The heart 3.5.2.1 The ventricle 3.5.2.2 The auricles and their excretory structures 3.5.2.3 Structure and ultrastructure of heart cells 3.5.2.4 Contraction 3.5.2.4.1 Refilling 3.5.2.4.2 Coordination of alternate AV beat 3.5.2.4.3 Pacemaker mechanism 3.5.2.4.4 Regulation of pacemaker 3.5.3 Haemolymph 3.5.3.1 Plasma 3.5.3.2 Haemocytes 3.5.3.2.1 Haemocyte types 3.5.3.2.2 Functions of haemocytes 3.6 Excretory system 3.6.1 Pericardial (auricular) glands 3.6.2 Kidney 3.6.3 Functions of the kidney and pericardial glands 3.7 Reproductive system 3.7.1 Sexuality: Gonochory, hermaphroditism and their variants 3.7.2 Origin and formation of the gonad 3.7.3 Anatomy, histology and ultrastructure of the adult gonad 3.7.3.1 Outer epithelium 3.7.3.2 Perigonadal connective tissue 3.7.3.3 Inter-acinal connective tissue 3.7.3.4 Haemolymph sinuses 3.7.3.5 Acini 3.7.3.6 Evacuating ducts 3.7.4 Gametogenesis 3.7.4.1 Oogenesis 3.7.4.1.1 Premeiotic stage 3.7.4.1.2 Previtellogenic stage 3.7.4.1.3 Vitellogenesis and metabolite transport to the oocyte 3.7.5 Oocyte atresia 3.7.6 Spermatogenesis, spermatozoon ultrastructure and taxonomy 3.7.7 Fertilisation 3.8 Nervous and sensory systems 3.8.1 General organisation of the nervous system and functional anatomy of principal ganglia 3.8.1.1 Cerebral and pedal ganglia 3.8.1.2 The parietovisceral ganglion and its nerves 3.8.1.3 Histology and neurosecretions of the ganglia 3.8.1.4 The circumpallial nerve 3.8.2 Sensory structures 3.8.2.1 Visual system 3.8.2.2 Epithelial sensory cells and tentacles 3.8.2.3 Abdominal sense organ 3.8.2.4 Osphradia 3.8.2.5 Statoreceptors 3.8.3 Neurotransmitters and neurohormones 3.9 Foot-byssal complex 3.9.1 External morphology and development of the foot-byssal complex 3.9.2 Anatomy and histology of the foot-byssal gland complex 3.9.2.1 The protein gland 3.9.2.2 The enzyme gland 3.9.2.3 The byssus 3.9.3 Functioning of the foot-byssal complex Acknowledgments References
  • Chapter 4. Scallop Adductor Muscles: Structure and Function Peter D. Chantler 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Structure of the striated adductor muscle 4.2.1 Fibre microanatomy 4.2.2 Actin and thin filament structure 4.2.3 Thick filament structure 4.3 Structure of the smooth adductor muscle 4.3.1 Fibre microanatomy 4.3.2 Thin filament structure 4.3.3 The structure of paramyosin-rich thick filaments 4.4 Myosin 4.5 Function of the striated adductor 4.5.1 Mechanics 4.5.2 The interaction of myosin with actin 4.5.3 The crossbridge cycle 4.5.4 Myosin-linked regulation 4.6 Function of the smooth adductor 4.6.1 Physiology 4.6.2 Catch mechanism 4.7 Achievements and goals Acknowledgments References
  • Chapter 5. Neurobiology and Behaviour of the Scallop Lon A. Wilkens 5.1 Introduction 5.2 The visual system 5.2.1 Functional anatomy of the eyes 5.2.2 Retinal physiology 5.2.3 Receptor potential biophysics 5.2.4 Anatomy and physiology of vision in the central nervous system 5.2.5 Visual behaviours 5.3 The locomotory system 5.3.1 Escape responses and swimming 5.3.2 Sensory and motor functions of the mantle 5.3.3 Innervation and neuromuscular physiology of the adductor muscle 5.3.4 Coordination of locomotory behaviour by the central nervous system Acknowledgments References
  • Chapter 6. Reproductive Physiology Bruce J. Barber and Norman J. Blake 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Gametogenic cycles 6.2.1 Definition 6.2.2 Means of assessment 6.2.2.1 Visual observation 6.2.2.2 Gonad mass and index 6.2.2.3 Histology 6.2.2.4 Abundance of larvae and spat 6.2.3 Variations in gametogenic cycles 6.2.3.1 Intra-specific variations 6.2.3.2 Inter-specific variations 6.3 Regulation of gametogenic cycles 6.3.1 Gametogenesis and fecundity 6.3.1.1 Exogenous regulation 6.3.1.2 Endogenous regulation 6.3.2 Spawning and spawning synchrony 6.3.2.1 Exogenous regulation 6.3.2.2 Endogenous regulation 6.4 Energy metabolism 6.4.1 Tissue weights and indices 6.4.2 Tissue biochemical composition 6.4.3 Physiological indices 6.4.4 Radiotracer experiments 6.4.5 Ultrastructure and histochemistry 6.4.6 Mechanisms 6.5 Applications to aquaculture 6.5.1 Broodstock conditioning 6.5.2 Spawning 6.5.3 Larval growth and survival 6.6 Summary 6.6.1 Gametogenic cycles 6.6.2 Regulation of gametogenesis 6.6.3 Energy metabolism 6.6.4 Applications to aquaculture References
  • Chapter 7. Physiology: Energy Acquisition and Utilisation Bruce A. MacDonald, V. Monica Bricelj and Sandra E. Shumway 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Energy acquisition 7.2.1 Food sources 7.2.2 Feeding currents and mechanisms of particle capture 7.2.3 Particle retention efficiency 7.2.4 Feeding rates 7.2.5 Clearance rate in relation to food concentration 7.2.6 Influence of temperature on feeding rates 7.2.7 Pseudofeces production, pre- and post-ingestive particle selection 7.2.8 Absorption efficiency 7.2.9 Effects of suspended sediments on feeding and growth 7.2.10 Effects of flow on feeding and growth 7.2.11 Effects of harmful and toxic algae 7.3 Energy utilisation: Metabolic expenditure 7.3.1 Metabolic rate and oxygen availability 7.3.2 Metabolic cost of reproduction 7.3.3 Metabolic rate in relation to temperature and latitude 7.3.4 Metabolic rate in relation to activity levels 7.3.5 Anaerobic metabolism 7.4 Energy utilisation 7.4.1 Excretion and byssus secretion 7.4.2 Growth References
  • Chapter 8. Physiological Integrations and Energy Partitioning Raymond J. Thompson and Bruce A. MacDonald 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Energy balance, physiological integrations and the partitioning of energy between growth and reproduction 8.2.1 Energy budgets 8.2.2 Scope for growth 8.2.3 Growth efficiency and turnover ratio 8.2.4 Growth of shell and somatic tissue 8.2.5 Reproductive effort 8.3 Changes related to age of individuals 8.3.1 Scope for growth 8.3.2 Growth efficiency and turnover ratio 8.3.3 Somatic growth and maximum size 8.3.4 Somatic production and reproductive output 8.3.5 Reproductive effort 8.4 Environmental influence on production 8.4.1 Scope for growth and growth efficiency 8.4.2 Growth of shell and somatic tissue 8.4.3 Reproductive effort 8.5 Reproductive value and cost 8.5.1 Residual reproductive value 8.5.2 Reproductive cost 8.6 Population production Acknowledgments References
  • Chapter 9. Nutrition in Pectinids Ana Farías and Iker Uriarte 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Pectinid feeding 9.3 Nutritional requirements during reproductive conditioning 9.4 Nutritional requirements of the larvae 9.5 Post-metamorphic nutritional requirements 9.6 Summary References
  • Chapter 10. Genetics Andy Beaumont 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Chromosomal genetics and ploidy manipulation 10.2.1 Chromosome numbers and karyotypes 10.2.2 Ploidy manipulation 10.3 Genetic markers and population genetics 10.3.1 Genetic markers 10.3.1.1 Allozymes 10.3.1.2 DNA methods 10.3.1.3 DNA based markers 10.3.1.3.1 Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) 10.3.1.3.2 Random amplified polymorhic DNA (RAPDs) 10.3.1.3.3 Microsatellites 10.3.1.3.4 Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) 10.3.1.4 Mitochondrial DNA in scallops 10.3.1.5 Types of data produced by different markers 10.3.1.6 Analysis of data 10.3.2 Overall genetic variation 10.3.3 Genetic differentiation of populations 10.3.3.1 Placopecten magellanicus 10.3.3.2 Patinopecten (= Mizuhopecten) yessoensis 10.3.3.3 Pecten maximus 10.3.3.4 Aequipecten opercularis 10.3.3.5 Chlamys islandica 10.3.3.6 Chlamys farreri 10.3.3.7 Mimachlamys varia 10.3.3.8 Euvola (Pecten) ziczac 10.3.3.9 Argopecten gibbus 10.3.3.10 The Argopecten irradians species complex 10.3.4 Genetic differences at species level and above 10.3.5 Heterozygote deficiency 10.3.6 Heterozygosity and growth 10.4 Quantitative genetics 10.4.1 Heritability and artificial selection 10.4.2 Inbreeding and hybridisation 10.5 Genome mapping and gene sequences 10.6 Conclusion Acknowledgments References
  • Chapter 11. Diseases and Parasites of Scallops Sharon E. McGladdery, Susan M. Bower and Rodman G. Getchell 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Microbial diseases 11.2.1 Viruses 11.2.2 Prokaryota 11.2.2.1 Vibrionaceae 11.2.2.2 Intracellular prokaryotes (Rickettsiales; Chlamydiales and Mycoplasma) 11.2.2.3 Other bacterial pathogens of scallops 11.2.2.4 Bacterial management under hatchery conditions 11.3 Mycota 11.4 Protista 11.4.1 Sarcomastigophorea (Amoebae and Flagellates) 11.4.2 Labyrinthomorpha (Thraustochytrids and Labythinuloids) 11.4.3 Apicomplexa 11.4.3.1 Perkinsorida 11.4.3.2 Eucoccidiia 11.4.3.3 Eugregarinida 11.4.4 Microspora 11.4.5 Ascetospora 11.4.5.1 Marteiliida 11.4.5.2 Balanosporida 11.4.6 Ciliates 11.5 Platyhelminths 11.5.1 Trematodes 11.5.2 Cestodes 11.5.3 Turbellaria 11.5.4 Nematodes 11.6 Polychaetes 11.7 Crustacea 11.7.1 Pinnotheriidae 11.7.2 Copepodidae 11.8 Gastropods 11.9 Algae 11.10 Foraminiferans 11.11 Porifera 11.12 Cnidaria 11.13 Non-Infectious diseases 11.14 Summary Acknowledgments References
  • Chapter 12. Scallop Ecology: Distributions and Behaviour Andrew R. Brand 12.1 Introduction 12.2 Geographical distribution 12.2.1 Geographical distribution of commercially important species 12.2.1.1 North Atlantic species 12.2.1.1.1 Pecten maximus and P. jacobaeus 12.2.1.1.2 Aequipecten opercularis 12.2.1.1.3 Mimachlamys varia 12.2.1.1.4 Placopecten magellanicus 12.2.1.1.5 Argopecten irradians 12.2.1.1.6 Argopecten gibbus 12.2.1.2 Sub-arctic species 12.2.1.2.1 Chlamys islandica 12.2.1.3 North Pacific species 12.2.1.3.1 Patinopecten caurinus 12.2.1.3.2 Mizuhopecten yessoensis 12.2.1.3.3 Pecten albicans, Mimachlamys nobilis and Chlamys farreri 12.2.1.4 Southern hemisphere species 12.2.1.4.1 Pecten fumatus 12.2.1.4.2 Mimachlamys asperrima and Equichlamys bifrons 12.2.1.4.3 Amusium balloti and A. pleuronectes 12.2.1.4.4 Pecten novaezelandiae 12.2.1.4.5 Argopecten purpuratus and A. ventricosus 12.2.1.4.6 Aequipecten tehuelchus 12.2.1.4.7 Zygochlamys patagonica 12.2.2 Factors affecting geographical distribution 12.3 Local distribution 12.3.1 Spatial distribution 12.3.2 Year-class separation 12.3.3 Factors affecting local distribution 12.3.3.1 Depth 12.3.3.2 Substrate type 12.3.3.3 Currents 12.3.3.4 Turbidity 12.3.3.5 Salinity 12.3.3.6 Competitors and predators 12.4 Scallop behaviour - aspects affecting distribution 12.4.1 Byssus attachment 12.4.2 Recessing 12.4.3 Orientation 12.4.4 Swimming 12.4.5 Reactions to predators 12.4.6 Dispersal and migrations 12.5 Further study Acknowledgments References
  • Chapter 13. Scallops and Marine Contaminants Peter J. Cranford 13.1 Introduction 13.2 Trace metals 13.3 Trace organics 13.4 Offshore oil and gas operations 13.5 Scallops as sentinel organisms Acknowledgments References
  • Chapter 14. Dynamics, Assessment and Management of Exploited Natural Populations J.M. (Lobo) Orensanz, Ana M. Parma, Teresa Turk and Juan Valero 14.1 Introduction 14.2 Spatial scales 14.3 Population structure and dynamics 14.3.1 Aggregate stocks 14.3.1.1 Patterns of fluctuation 14.3.1.2 Climatic forcing 14.3.1.3 Correlation between consecutive life-history stages 14.3.1.4 The relation between aggregate stock and settlement/ recruitment 14.3.2 Macroscale 14.3.2.1 Patterns of connectivity: metapopulation structure 14.3.2.2 Metapopulation structure and geographic genetic differentiation 14.3.2.3 Larval retention/dispersal: mechanisms and oceanographic scenarios 14.3.2.4 Metapopulation models 14.3.3 Mesoscale 14.3.3.1 Persistence, extinction and resurgence of subpopulations 14.3.3.2 Relation between abundance and area occupied by a subpopulation 14.3.4 Microscale 14.3.4.1 Density, neighbourhoods and concentration 14.3.4.2 Concentration profiles 14.3.4.3 Density- vs. concentration-dependence; compensation vs. depensation 14.4 The fishing process 14.4.1 Types of fishing gear used in scallop fisheries 14.4.2 Effort and fishing mortality 14.4.2.1 Effort data 14.4.2.2 Effort units 14.4.2.3 Components of fishing mortality under homogeneity assumptions 14.4.2.4 Relative fishing power and standardisation of effort 14.4.3 Spatial patterns of effort allocation 14.4.4 The depletion process 14.4.5 Vulnerability and selectivity 14.4.6 Gear performance 14.4.7 Incidental fishing mortality and sub-lethal damage 14.5 Assessment 14.5.1 Macroscale 14.5.2 Mesoscale 14.5.2.1 Estimation of aggregated abundance: methods based on sampling 14.5.2.2 Mapping 14.5.2.3 Methods based on modelling the depletion process 14.5.3 Microscale 14.5.3.1 Small-scale spatial data 14.5.3.2 Spatial pattern 14.5.3.3 Scaling problems 14.6 Management 14.6.1 Types of scallop fisheries 14.6.2 Overfishing 14.6.2.1 Growth overfishing: yield-per-recruit (Y/R) analysis 14.6.2.2 Recruitment overfishing 14.6.2.3 A special case: recruitment fisheries 14.6.3 Sustainability 14.6.3.1 The precautionary approach to fisheries management (PAFM) and risk assessment (RA) 14.6.3.2 Marine protected areas (MPAs) 14.6.3.3 Ecosystem management concerns 14.6.3.4 Strategic structures: use and property rights 14.6.3.5 Diversification of the resource-base 14.6.4 Tactics 14.6.4.1 Size limits 14.6.4.2 Quota regulations 14.6.4.3 Escapement regulations 14.6.4.4 Direct effort regulations 14.6.4.5 Rotation 14.6.4.6 Direct interventions to enhance productivity 14.6.4.7 Experimental management Acknowledgments References Endnotes
  • Chapter 15. Fisheries Sea Scallop, Placopecten magellanicus K.S. Naidu and G. Robert 15.1 Introduction 15.2 Distribution 15.3 History of fishery 15.4 Population biology 15.5 Growth and yield per recruit 15.6 Gear and boats 15.7 Exploitation and resource management 15.8 Outlook References
  • Chapter 16. Sea Scallop Aquaculture in the Northwest Atlantic G. Jay Parsons and Shawn M. C. Robinson 16.1 Introduction 16.2 History of sea scallop culture 16.3 Hatchery spat production 16.3.1 Broodstock conditioning 16.3.2 Spawning methods 16.3.3 Egg and larval development 16.3.4 Settlement and metamorphosis 16.3.5 Spat husbandry 16.4 Wild spat collection 16.4.1 Spat collection techniques 16.4.2 Settlement intensity 16.4.3 Maximising spat collection 16.4.4 Spat growth 16.4.5 Spat sorting 16.5 Intermediate culture 16.5.1 Growth 16.5.2 Stocking density 16.5.3 Depth 16.5.4 Season 16.5.5 Location 16.5.6 Survival 16.5.7 Gear selection 16.5.8 Strategies for intermediate culture 16.6 Final grow-out 16.6.1 Suspension culture 16.6.2 Bottom culture 16.6.3 Growth 16.7 Scheduling and strategies 16.8 Site selection 16.8.1 Environmental criteria 16.8.1.1 Temperature and salinity regime 16.8.1.2 Ice coverage 16.8.1.3 Wind 16.8.1.4 Bottom type 16.8.1.5 Turbidity 16.8.2 Biological constraints 16.8.2.1 Predators 16.8.2.2 Fouling organisms 16.8.2.3 Phycotoxins 16.8.2.4 Diseases and parasites 16.9 Products and marketing 16.10 Economics 16.11 Social issues 16.12 Future prospects Acknowledgments References
  • Chapter 17. Bay Scallop and Calico Scallop Fisheries, Culture and Enhancement in Eastern North America Norman J. Blake and Sandra E. Shumway 17.1 Introduction 17.2 Fisheries 17.2.1 Bay scallop, Argopecten irradians 17.2.1.1 Distribution 17.2.1.2 Biology 17.2.1.3 Fishery 17.2.2 Calico scallop, Argopecten gibbus 17.2.2.1 Distribution 17.2.2.2 Biology 17.2.2.3 Fishery 17.3 Aquaculture and enhancement 17.4 Future References
  • Chapter 18. Scallops of the West Coast of North America Raymond B. Lauzier and Neil F. Bourne 18.1 Introduction 18.2 Fisheries 18.2.1 Weathervane scallop 18.2.1.1 Biology 18.2.1.2 Fishery 18.2.1.3 Gear 18.2.1.4 Management 18.2.2 Rock scallop 18.2.2.1 Biology 18.2.2.2 Fishery 18.2.3 Pink and spiny scallops 18.2.3.1 Biology 18.2.3.2 Fisheries 18.2.3.3 Management 18.3 Aquaculture 18.3.1 Pink and spiny scallops 18.3.2 Weathervane scallop 18.3.3 Rock scallops 18.3.4 Japanese weathervane scallop 18.3.5 Pacific calico scallop 18.4 Future Acknowledgments References
  • Chapter 19. The European Scallop Fisheries for Pecten maximus, Aequipecten opercularis and Mimachlamys varia Andrew R. Brand 19.1 Introduction 19.2 Biology and ecology 19.2.1 The great scallop, Pecten maximus (L.) 19.2.2 The queen scallop, Aequipecten opercularis (L.) 19.2.3 The black or variegated scallop, Mimachlamys varia (L.) 19.3 Fisheries 19.3.1 Isle of Man 19.3.2 Scotland 19.3.3 England and Wales 19.3.4 Northern Ireland 19.3.5 Republic of Ireland 19.3.6 France 19.3.7 Spain 19.4 The future Acknowledgments References
  • Chapter 20. European Aquaculture Mark Norman, Guillermo Román and Oivind Strand 20.1 Introduction 20.2 Pecten maximus 20.3 Aequipecten opercularis 20.4 Chlamys varia 20.5 Summary References
  • Chapter 21. Scandinavia Oivind Strand and G. Jay Parsons 21.1 Introduction 21.2 Chlamys islandica 21.2.1 Biology 21.2.2 Fishery 21.2.3 Aquaculture 21.3 Pecten maximus 21.3.1 Biology 21.3.2 Fishery 21.3.3 Aquaculture 21.4 Aequipecten opercularis Acknowledgments References
  • Chapter 22. Japan Yoshinobu Kosaka and Hiroshi Ito 22.1 Introduction 22.2 Patinopecten (Mizuhopecten) yessoensis 22.2.1 Biology 22.2.2 Fishery 22.2.3 Culture 22.2.4 Seed production 22.2.5 Spat collection 22.2.6 Intermediate culture 22.2.7 Hanging culture 22.2.8 Fouling 22.2.9 Sowing culture 22.2.10 Enemy clearance 22.2.11 Seed sowing 22.2.12 Care 22.2.13 Recapture 22.2.14 Value 22.2.15 Processing 22.2.16 Occurrence of shellfish poisoning 22.3 Future 22.3.1 Technology 22.3.2 Control of culture 22.3.3 Cost-reduction 22.3.4 Concept 22.4 Pecten albicans 22.4.1 Biology 22.4.2 Fishery 22.4.3 Culture 22.5 Chlamys (Mimachlamys) nobilis 22.5.1 Biology 22.5.2 Culture Acknowledgments References
  • Chapter 23. Scallop Culture in China Ximing Guo and Yousheng Luo 23.1 Introduction 23.2 Zhikong scallop 23.2.1 Shell morphology 23.2.2 Distribution 23.2.3 Growth 23.2.4 Reproduction 23.3 Other scallop species 23.3.1 Huagui scallop 23.3.2 Non-native species 23.4 Fishery 23.5 Aquaculture 23.5.1 Species and history 23.5.2 Collection of natural seed for Zhikong scallop 23.5.3 Hatchery production of bay scallop 23.5.4 Grow-out 23.6 Harvest, processing and marketing Acknowledgments References
  • Chapter 24. Scallops Fisheries and Aquaculture of Northwestern Pacific, Russian Federation Victor V. Ivin, Vasily Z. Kalashnikov, Sergey I. Maslennikov and Vitaly G. Tarasov 24.1 Introduction 24.2 Taxonomic status 24.3 Biology and ecology 24.3.1 Chlamys albida 24.3.2 Chlamys asiatica 24.3.3 Chlamys behringiana 24.3.4 Chlamys chosenica 24.3.5 Chlamys farreri 24.3.6 Chlamys swifti 24.3.7 Delectopecten randolphi 24.3.8 Mizuhopecten yessoensis 24.3.8.1 Total populations and biomass 24.3.8.2 Distribution in Primorye 24.3.8.3 Distribution over depths 24.3.8.4 Age structure of scallop settlements 24.3.8.5 Scallop growth 24.3.8.6 Sex structure of settlements 24.3.8.7 Replenishment 24.3.8.8 Spawning 24.3.8.9 Larvae morphology 24.3.8.10 Development in plankton 24.3.8.11 Migration behaviour 24.3.8.12 Risk factors 24.3.8.12.1 Abiotic factors 24.3.8.12.2 Storms 24.3.8.12.3 Predators 24.3.8.12.4 Parasites 24.3.8.12.5 Bacterial contamination 24.3.8.12.6 Epibionts 24.4 Fishing and aquaculture 24.4.1 Fishing 24.4.1.1 History 24.4.1.2 Fishing gear 24.4.1.3 Yesso scallop landings 24.4.1.3.1 Primorsky territory 24.4.1.3.2 Sakhalin-Kurile region 24.4.1.4 Yesso scallop commercial stock 24.4.1.4.1 Primorsky territory 24.4.1.4.2 Sakhalin-Kurile region 24.4.1.4.2.1 Aniva Bay 24.4.1.4.2.2 Terpenie Bay 24.4.1.4.2.3 Kuriles 24.4.1.5 Commercial Chlamys scallops 24.4.1.5.1 Primorye 24.4.1.5.2 Kurile Islands 24.4.1.5.3 In Bering Sea 24.4.1.6 Other Chlamys species 24.4.1.6.1 Chlamys farreri 24.4.1.6.2 Chlamys swifti 24.4.2 Aquaculture 24.4.2.1 History 24.4.2.2 Present situation 24.4.2.3 Marketing 24.4.2.4 The culture methods 24.4.2.4.1 Spat collection 24.4.2.4.2 Intermediate culture 24.4.2.4.3 Transport of scallop seed 24.4.2.4.4 Sowing or on-bottom culture 24.4.2.4.5 Hanging or off-bottom culture 24.4.2.4.6 Obstacles to mariculture development 24.4.2.4.7 Ecological constraints associated with cultivation 24.4.2.4.7.1 Predation 24.4.2.4.7.2 Epibionts 24.4.2.4.7.3 Biofouling of cultivation structures 24.4.2.4.8 Effect of scallop mariculture on coastal ecosystems 24.4.2.5 Future prospects Acknowledgments References
  • Chapter 25. Scallop Aquaculture and Fisheries in Brazil Guilherme S. Rupp and G. Jay Parsons 25.1 Introduction 25.2 Nodipecten nodosus € biology, aquaculture and fisheries 25.2.1 Taxonomy and distribution 25.2.2 Ecology 25.2.3 Reproduction 25.2.4 Aquaculture 25.2.4.1 Status 25.2.4.2 Culture technology 25.2.4.2.1 Wild seed collection 25.2.4.2.2 Hatchery production 25.2.4.2.3 Growout 25.2.4.2.4 Constraints 25.2.5 Fisheries and marketing 25.2.6 Future prospects 25.3 Euvola (Pecten) ziczac € biology, aquaculture and fisheries 25.3.1 Taxonomy and distribution 25.3.2 Ecology 25.3.3 Reproduction 25.3.4 Aquaculture 25.3.4.1 Status 25.3.4.2.Culture technology 25.3.4.2.1 Wild seed collection 25.3.4.2.2 Hatchery production 25.3.4.2.3 Growout 25.3.4.2.4 Constraints 25.3.5 Fisheries 25.3.6 Future prospects Acknowledgments References
  • Chapter 26. Argentina Néstor F. Ciocco, Mario L. Lasta, Maite Narvarte, Claudia Bremec, Eugenia Bogazzi, Juan Valero and J.M. (Lobo) Orensanz 26.1 Introduction 26.2 The Tehuelche scallop, Aequipecten tehuelchus 26.2.1 Biology 26.2.2 Population dynamics 26.2.3 Fisheries 26.2.3.1 The inshore dredge fishery of San Matías Gulf 26.2.3.2 The commercial diving fishery of San José Gulf 26.2.4 Aquaculture 26.2.4.1 Spat collection 26.2.4.1.1 Vertical distribution of settlement 26.2.4.1.2 Temporal variation in settlement 26.2.4.1.3 Type of collector 26.2.4.1.4 Location 26.2.4.1.5 Influence of depth, type of collector and location on the average size of the €seed€ 26.2.4.2 Growth in suspended structures of spat obtained from collectors 26.2.4.3 Larval culture in the laboratory 26.2.4.4 Prospects and problems 26.3 The Patagonian scallop, Zygochlamys patagonica 26.3.1 Biology and ecology 26.3.2 Population dynamics and stock assessment 26.3.3 The fishery 26.3.3.1 Exploratory surveys and experimental fishing programs 26.3.3.2 Management 26.3.3.3 Development of the fishery 26.3.3.4 Observers program 26.3.3.5 Ecological effects of fishing 26.3.3.6 Marketing Acknowledgments References
  • Chapter 27. Scallop Fishery and Aquaculture in Chile Elisabeth von Brand, German E. Merino, Alejandro Abarca and Wolfgang Stotz 27.1 Introduction 27.2 Species description 27.2.1 Argopecten purpuratus (Lamarck 1819) the northern scallop 27.2.2 Zygochlamys patagonica (King and Broderip 1831) the southern scallop 27.2.3 Chlamys vitrea (King & Broderip, 1831) the southern scallop€. 27.3 Fisheries 27.3.1 Argopecten purpuratus, the northern scallop 27.3.2 Chlamys vitrea and Zygochlamys patagonica, the southern scallop 27.4 How scallop aquaculture started in Chile 27.5 Aquaculture production 27.5.1 Production stages 27.5.1.1 Hatchery broodstock conditioning and spawning 27.5.1.2 Larval stage 27.5.1.3 Settlement, metamorphosis and postlarval stage 27.5.1.4 Seed supply 27.5.1.5 Ongrowing stage 27.5.2 Constraints and opportunities for northern scallop hatcheries 27.5.3 Interaction between natural beds and aquaculture 27.5.4 Recovery of a natural bed of Argopecten purpuratus 27.5.5 Final overview and projections of Chilean scallop farming Acknowledgments References
  • Chapter 28. Venezuela César J. Lodeiros, Luis Freites, Maximiano Nuñez, Anibal Vélez and John H. Himmelman 28.1 Introduction 28.2 Distribution, habitat and reproduction 28.2.1 Euvola (Pecten) ziczac 28.2.2 Argopecten nucleus 28.2.3 Nodipecten (Lyropecten) nodosus 28.2.4 Amusium papyraceum and Amusium laurenti 28.3 Fisheries 28.4 Aquaculture 28.4.1 Euvola ziczac 28.4.1.1 Gonad maturation and spawning 28.4.1.2 Spat production 28.4.1.3 Grow-out 28.4.2 Nodipecten nodosus 28.4.2.1 Gonad maturation and spawning 28.4.2.2 Spat production 28.4.2.3 Grow-out 28.4.3 Argopecten nucleus 28.5 Perspectives for culture References
  • Chapter 29. Mexico Esteban Fernando Félix-Pico 29.1 Fishery 29.1.1 Introduction 29.1.2 Species and distribution of scallops 29.1.3 History of the fishery 29.1.4 Status of the resource 29.1.4.1 Reproductive biology 29.1.4.1.1 Size at maturity 29.1.4.1.2 Fecundity 29.1.4.1.3 Maturity and spawning 29.1.4.2 Population biology 29.1.4.3 Abundance and density 29.2 Exploitation of the resource 29.2.1 Fishing areas 29.2.2 Fishing seasons 29.2.3 Fishing operations and results 29.2.4 The market value-landings data from 1970 to 2000 29.3 Constraints 29.3.1 Pollution 29.3.2 Biological constraints 29.3.3 Predation 29.3.4 Resource management constraints 29.4 Harvesting and transporting 29.4.1 Methods 29.4.2 Marketing 29.5 Expected future 29.6 Aquaculture 29.6.1 Introduction 29.6.2 Species 29.6.3 History 29.7 Hatchery techniques 29.7.1 Conditioning 29.7.2 Induction of spawning and fertilisation 29.7.3 Larval culture and metamorphosis 29.7.4 Genetic enhancement 29.7.4.1 Selection 29.7.4.2 Crossbreeding 29.7.4.3 Triploidy 29.7.5 Antibiotics 29.8 Natural spat 29.8.1 Methods employed 29.8.2 Spat collection 29.9 Growth 29.9.1 Suspended cultures 29.9.2 Bottom cultures 29.9.3 Factors influencing growth 29.10 Mortality 29.10.1 Suspended culture 29.10.2 Bottom culture 29.11 Constraints 29.12 Future prospects References
  • Chapter 30. Scallop Fisheries, Mariculture and Enhancement in Australia Mike Dredge 30.1 Introduction 30.2 History of the fisheries 30.3 Biology of target species 30.3.1 Pecten fumatus 30.3.1.1 Distribution and life cycle 30.3.1.2 Mortality 30.3.1.3 Monitoring, abundance and population dynamics 30.3.2 Amusium balloti 30.3.2.1 Distribution and life cycle 30.3.2.2 Mortality 30.3.2.3 Monitoring, abundance and population dynamics 30.4 Fisheries and their management 30.4.1 Pecten fumatus 30.4.1.1 Regulation 30.4.1.2 Environmental management and sustainability issues 30.4.2 Amusium balloti 30.4.2.1 Regulation 30.4.2.2 Environmental management and sustainability issues 30.5 Culture of scallops in Australia 30.5.1 Pecten fumatus 30.5.1.1 Tasmania 30.5.1.1.1 Spat production 30.5.1.1.2 Culture operations 30.5.1.2 Victoria 30.5.1.3 New South Wales 30.5.1.4 South Australia 30.5.2 Amusium balloti 30.6 Summary Acknowledgments References
  • Chapter 31. New Zealand Islay D. Marsden and Michael F. Bull 31.1 Introduction 31.2 Biology 31.2.1 Morphology 31.2.2 Distribution 31.2.3 Life cycle 31.2.4 Growth rates 31.2.5 Mortality
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