Scallops: Biology, Ecology and Aquaculture - 2nd edition

Edited by Sandra Shumway and G. Jay Parsons 
Elsevier  March 2006  

Hardback  1500 pp  ISBN 9780444-04821      £150.00
Volume 35 in the series Developments in Aquaculture and Fisheries Science.

Scallops are among the better known shellfish and are widely distributed throughout the world. They are of great economic importance, support both commercial fisheries and mariculture efforts and occupy a unique niche in the marine environment. Contributions from world leaders in scallop research and culture cover all facets of scallop biology including anatomy, taxonomy, physiology, ecology, larval biology and neurobiology. Chapters are also devoted to diseases and parasites, genetics, population dynamics and the adductor muscle, with extensive reference lists provided for each chapter.

Since the publication of the first edition of Scallops: Biology, Ecology and Aquaculture in 1991, commercial interest in scallops has grown globally and this is reflected in the seventeen extensive chapters covering both fisheries and aquaculture for all species of scallops in all countries where they are fished or cultured. The Second Edition is the only comprehensive treatise on the biology of scallops and is the definitive reference source for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, mariculturists, managers and researchers. It is a valuable reference for anyone interested in staying abreast of the latest advances in scallops.

Of interest to fisheries, marine biologists, researchers studying shellfish and the ocean environment


Preface from first edition
List of contributors

  • Chapter 1. New Phylogenies of the Pectinidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia): Reconciling Morphological and Molecular Approaches Thomas R. Waller 1.1 Introduction 1.1.1 Molecular genetic studies 1.1.2 Methods and materials 1.2 New observations 1.2.1 Subfamily Camptonectinae Habe, 1977 1.2.2 Subfamily Palliolinae Korobkov in Eberzin, 1960 Tribe Pseudentoliini, new tribe Tribe Adamussiini Habe, 1977 Tribe Eburneopectinini, new tribe Tribe Serripectinini, new tribe Tribe Palliolini Korobkov in Eberzin, 1960 Tribe Mesopeplini, new tribe 1.2.3 Origins of the Decatopecten and Pecten Groups 1.2.4 Eastern Atlantic Pecten 1.3 Conclusions Acknowledgments References Appendix
  • Chapter 2. Development, Physiology, Behaviour and Ecology of Scallop Larvae Simon M. Cragg 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Scallop life history characteristics 2.3 Larval development 2.3.1 Embryogenesis 2.3.2 Development of the larval shell 2.3.3 Organogenesis Development of ciliation, the prototroch and the velum Larval mantle Musculature Digestive tract Sense organs Apical organ Statocysts Eye spots Mantle ciliation Foot Nervous system Other organs 2.3.4 Metamorphosis 2.4 Comparative anatomy 2.5 Functional morphology 2.5.1 Locomotion 2.5.2 Feeding 2.5.3 Respiration 2.5.4 Sensory reception 2.6 Physiology and effects of environmental variables 2.6.1 Energy reserves and feeding 2.6.2 Respiration 2.6.3 Growth 2.6.4 Biochemical events during metamorphosis 2.7 Behaviour and larval distribution 2.7.1 Characteristics of locomotion during larval development 2.7.2 Responses to stimuli 2.7.3 Distribution of larvae 2.7.4 Development and the larval environment 2.7.5 Tolerance of environmental variables 2.8 Rearing methods 2.8.1 Spawning and manipulation of zygotes 2.8.2 Feeding 2.8.3 Control of disease in cultures 2.8.4 Collection of spat from wild stocks References
  • Chapter 3. Structure and Function in Scallops Peter G. Beninger and Marcel Le Pennec 3.1 Introduction 3.1.1 An overview of the scallop body 3.2 The mantle and its derivatives 3.2.1 Gross functional anatomy 3.2.2 Microanatomy and functions 3.3 Pallial organs and particle processing 3.3.1 Gills Gill axis and arch Principal filaments and dorsal expansion Ordinary filament Haemolymph circulation in the gill Particle processing on the gill Particle selection at the gill Particle retention lower size limit Ingestion volume regulation on the gill 3.3.2 Labial palps and lips Labial palps Particle processing on the labial palps Lips 3.4 Digestive system and digestion 3.4.1 Mouth and oesophagus 3.4.2 Stomach, crystalline style and gastric shield 3.4.3 The digestive gland 3.4.4 Intestine, rectum and anus 3.4.5 Digestive sites and postingestive selection 3.5 Cardio-Vascular system 3.5.1 General circulation The arterial system Anterior aorta Posterior aorta The venous system 3.5.2 The heart The ventricle The auricles and their excretory structures Structure and ultrastructure of heart cells Contraction Refilling Coordination of alternate AV beat Pacemaker mechanism Regulation of pacemaker 3.5.3 Haemolymph Plasma Haemocytes Haemocyte types Functions of haemocytes 3.6 Excretory system 3.6.1 Pericardial (auricular) glands 3.6.2 Kidney 3.6.3 Functions of the kidney and pericardial glands 3.7 Reproductive system 3.7.1 Sexuality: Gonochory, hermaphroditism and their variants 3.7.2 Origin and formation of the gonad 3.7.3 Anatomy, histology and ultrastructure of the adult gonad Outer epithelium Perigonadal connective tissue Inter-acinal connective tissue Haemolymph sinuses Acini Evacuating ducts 3.7.4 Gametogenesis Oogenesis Premeiotic stage Previtellogenic stage Vitellogenesis and metabolite transport to the oocyte 3.7.5 Oocyte atresia 3.7.6 Spermatogenesis, spermatozoon ultrastructure and taxonomy 3.7.7 Fertilisation 3.8 Nervous and sensory systems 3.8.1 General organisation of the nervous system and functional anatomy of principal ganglia Cerebral and pedal ganglia The parietovisceral ganglion and its nerves Histology and neurosecretions of the ganglia The circumpallial nerve 3.8.2 Sensory structures Visual system Epithelial sensory cells and tentacles Abdominal sense organ Osphradia Statoreceptors 3.8.3 Neurotransmitters and neurohormones 3.9 Foot-byssal complex 3.9.1 External morphology and development of the foot-byssal complex 3.9.2 Anatomy and histology of the foot-byssal gland complex The protein gland The enzyme gland The byssus 3.9.3 Functioning of the foot-byssal complex Acknowledgments References
  • Chapter 4. Scallop Adductor Muscles: Structure and Function Peter D. Chantler 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Structure of the striated adductor muscle 4.2.1 Fibre microanatomy 4.2.2 Actin and thin filament structure 4.2.3 Thick filament structure 4.3 Structure of the smooth adductor muscle 4.3.1 Fibre microanatomy 4.3.2 Thin filament structure 4.3.3 The structure of paramyosin-rich thick filaments 4.4 Myosin 4.5 Function of the striated adductor 4.5.1 Mechanics 4.5.2 The interaction of myosin with actin 4.5.3 The crossbridge cycle 4.5.4 Myosin-linked regulation 4.6 Function of the smooth adductor 4.6.1 Physiology 4.6.2 Catch mechanism 4.7 Achievements and goals Acknowledgments References
  • Chapter 5. Neurobiology and Behaviour of the Scallop Lon A. Wilkens 5.1 Introduction 5.2 The visual system 5.2.1 Functional anatomy of the eyes 5.2.2 Retinal physiology 5.2.3 Receptor potential biophysics 5.2.4 Anatomy and physiology of vision in the central nervous system 5.2.5 Visual behaviours 5.3 The locomotory system 5.3.1 Escape responses and swimming 5.3.2 Sensory and motor functions of the mantle 5.3.3 Innervation and neuromuscular physiology of the adductor muscle 5.3.4 Coordination of locomotory behaviour by the central nervous system Acknowledgments References
  • Chapter 6. Reproductive Physiology Bruce J. Barber and Norman J. Blake 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Gametogenic cycles 6.2.1 Definition 6.2.2 Means of assessment Visual observation Gonad mass and index Histology Abundance of larvae and spat 6.2.3 Variations in gametogenic cycles Intra-specific variations Inter-specific variations 6.3 Regulation of gametogenic cycles 6.3.1 Gametogenesis and fecundity Exogenous regulation Endogenous regulation 6.3.2 Spawning and spawning synchrony Exogenous regulation Endogenous regulation 6.4 Energy metabolism 6.4.1 Tissue weights and indices 6.4.2 Tissue biochemical composition 6.4.3 Physiological indices 6.4.4 Radiotracer experiments 6.4.5 Ultrastructure and histochemistry 6.4.6 Mechanisms 6.5 Applications to aquaculture 6.5.1 Broodstock conditioning 6.5.2 Spawning 6.5.3 Larval growth and survival 6.6 Summary 6.6.1 Gametogenic cycles 6.6.2 Regulation of gametogenesis 6.6.3 Energy metabolism 6.6.4 Applications to aquaculture References
  • Chapter 7. Physiology: Energy Acquisition and Utilisation Bruce A. MacDonald, V. Monica Bricelj and Sandra E. Shumway 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Energy acquisition 7.2.1 Food sources 7.2.2 Feeding currents and mechanisms of particle capture 7.2.3 Particle retention efficiency 7.2.4 Feeding rates 7.2.5 Clearance rate in relation to food concentration 7.2.6 Influence of temperature on feeding rates 7.2.7 Pseudofeces production, pre- and post-ingestive particle selection 7.2.8 Absorption efficiency 7.2.9 Effects of suspended sediments on feeding and growth 7.2.10 Effects of flow on feeding and growth 7.2.11 Effects of harmful and toxic algae 7.3 Energy utilisation: Metabolic expenditure 7.3.1 Metabolic rate and oxygen availability 7.3.2 Metabolic cost of reproduction 7.3.3 Metabolic rate in relation to temperature and latitude 7.3.4 Metabolic rate in relation to activity levels 7.3.5 Anaerobic metabolism 7.4 Energy utilisation 7.4.1 Excretion and byssus secretion 7.4.2 Growth References
  • Chapter 8. Physiological Integrations and Energy Partitioning Raymond J. Thompson and Bruce A. MacDonald 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Energy balance, physiological integrations and the partitioning of energy between growth and reproduction 8.2.1 Energy budgets 8.2.2 Scope for growth 8.2.3 Growth efficiency and turnover ratio 8.2.4 Growth of shell and somatic tissue 8.2.5 Reproductive effort 8.3 Changes related to age of individuals 8.3.1 Scope for growth 8.3.2 Growth efficiency and turnover ratio 8.3.3 Somatic growth and maximum size 8.3.4 Somatic production and reproductive output 8.3.5 Reproductive effort 8.4 Environmental influence on production 8.4.1 Scope for growth and growth efficiency 8.4.2 Growth of shell and somatic tissue 8.4.3 Reproductive effort 8.5 Reproductive value and cost 8.5.1 Residual reproductive value 8.5.2 Reproductive cost 8.6 Population production Acknowledgments References
  • Chapter 9. Nutrition in Pectinids Ana Farías and Iker Uriarte 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Pectinid feeding 9.3 Nutritional requirements during reproductive conditioning 9.4 Nutritional requirements of the larvae 9.5 Post-metamorphic nutritional requirements 9.6 Summary References
  • Chapter 10. Genetics Andy Beaumont 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Chromosomal genetics and ploidy manipulation 10.2.1 Chromosome numbers and karyotypes 10.2.2 Ploidy manipulation 10.3 Genetic markers and population genetics 10.3.1 Genetic markers Allozymes DNA methods DNA based markers Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) Random amplified polymorhic DNA (RAPDs) Microsatellites Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) Mitochondrial DNA in scallops Types of data produced by different markers Analysis of data 10.3.2 Overall genetic variation 10.3.3 Genetic differentiation of populations Placopecten magellanicus Patinopecten (= Mizuhopecten) yessoensis Pecten maximus Aequipecten opercularis Chlamys islandica Chlamys farreri Mimachlamys varia Euvola (Pecten) ziczac Argopecten gibbus The Argopecten irradians species complex 10.3.4 Genetic differences at species level and above 10.3.5 Heterozygote deficiency 10.3.6 Heterozygosity and growth 10.4 Quantitative genetics 10.4.1 Heritability and artificial selection 10.4.2 Inbreeding and hybridisation 10.5 Genome mapping and gene sequences 10.6 Conclusion Acknowledgments References
  • Chapter 11. Diseases and Parasites of Scallops Sharon E. McGladdery, Susan M. Bower and Rodman G. Getchell 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Microbial diseases 11.2.1 Viruses 11.2.2 Prokaryota Vibrionaceae Intracellular prokaryotes (Rickettsiales; Chlamydiales and Mycoplasma) Other bacterial pathogens of scallops Bacterial management under hatchery conditions 11.3 Mycota 11.4 Protista 11.4.1 Sarcomastigophorea (Amoebae and Flagellates) 11.4.2 Labyrinthomorpha (Thraustochytrids and Labythinuloids) 11.4.3 Apicomplexa Perkinsorida Eucoccidiia Eugregarinida 11.4.4 Microspora 11.4.5 Ascetospora Marteiliida Balanosporida 11.4.6 Ciliates 11.5 Platyhelminths 11.5.1 Trematodes 11.5.2 Cestodes 11.5.3 Turbellaria 11.5.4 Nematodes 11.6 Polychaetes 11.7 Crustacea 11.7.1 Pinnotheriidae 11.7.2 Copepodidae 11.8 Gastropods 11.9 Algae 11.10 Foraminiferans 11.11 Porifera 11.12 Cnidaria 11.13 Non-Infectious diseases 11.14 Summary Acknowledgments References
  • Chapter 12. Scallop Ecology: Distributions and Behaviour Andrew R. Brand 12.1 Introduction 12.2 Geographical distribution 12.2.1 Geographical distribution of commercially important species North Atlantic species Pecten maximus and P. jacobaeus Aequipecten opercularis Mimachlamys varia Placopecten magellanicus Argopecten irradians Argopecten gibbus Sub-arctic species Chlamys islandica North Pacific species Patinopecten caurinus Mizuhopecten yessoensis Pecten albicans, Mimachlamys nobilis and Chlamys farreri Southern hemisphere species Pecten fumatus Mimachlamys asperrima and Equichlamys bifrons Amusium balloti and A. pleuronectes Pecten novaezelandiae Argopecten purpuratus and A. ventricosus Aequipecten tehuelchus Zygochlamys patagonica 12.2.2 Factors affecting geographical distribution 12.3 Local distribution 12.3.1 Spatial distribution 12.3.2 Year-class separation 12.3.3 Factors affecting local distribution Depth Substrate type Currents Turbidity Salinity Competitors and predators 12.4 Scallop behaviour - aspects affecting distribution 12.4.1 Byssus attachment 12.4.2 Recessing 12.4.3 Orientation 12.4.4 Swimming 12.4.5 Reactions to predators 12.4.6 Dispersal and migrations 12.5 Further study Acknowledgments References
  • Chapter 13. Scallops and Marine Contaminants Peter J. Cranford 13.1 Introduction 13.2 Trace metals 13.3 Trace organics 13.4 Offshore oil and gas operations 13.5 Scallops as sentinel organisms Acknowledgments References
  • Chapter 14. Dynamics, Assessment and Management of Exploited Natural Populations J.M. (Lobo) Orensanz, Ana M. Parma, Teresa Turk and Juan Valero 14.1 Introduction 14.2 Spatial scales 14.3 Population structure and dynamics 14.3.1 Aggregate stocks Patterns of fluctuation Climatic forcing Correlation between consecutive life-history stages The relation between aggregate stock and settlement/ recruitment 14.3.2 Macroscale Patterns of connectivity: metapopulation structure Metapopulation structure and geographic genetic differentiation Larval retention/dispersal: mechanisms and oceanographic scenarios Metapopulation models 14.3.3 Mesoscale Persistence, extinction and resurgence of subpopulations Relation between abundance and area occupied by a subpopulation 14.3.4 Microscale Density, neighbourhoods and concentration Concentration profiles Density- vs. concentration-dependence; compensation vs. depensation 14.4 The fishing process 14.4.1 Types of fishing gear used in scallop fisheries 14.4.2 Effort and fishing mortality Effort data Effort units Components of fishing mortality under homogeneity assumptions Relative fishing power and standardisation of effort 14.4.3 Spatial patterns of effort allocation 14.4.4 The depletion process 14.4.5 Vulnerability and selectivity 14.4.6 Gear performance 14.4.7 Incidental fishing mortality and sub-lethal damage 14.5 Assessment 14.5.1 Macroscale 14.5.2 Mesoscale Estimation of aggregated abundance: methods based on sampling Mapping Methods based on modelling the depletion process 14.5.3 Microscale Small-scale spatial data Spatial pattern Scaling problems 14.6 Management 14.6.1 Types of scallop fisheries 14.6.2 Overfishing Growth overfishing: yield-per-recruit (Y/R) analysis Recruitment overfishing A special case: recruitment fisheries 14.6.3 Sustainability The precautionary approach to fisheries management (PAFM) and risk assessment (RA) Marine protected areas (MPAs) Ecosystem management concerns Strategic structures: use and property rights Diversification of the resource-base 14.6.4 Tactics Size limits Quota regulations Escapement regulations Direct effort regulations Rotation Direct interventions to enhance productivity Experimental management Acknowledgments References Endnotes
  • Chapter 15. Fisheries Sea Scallop, Placopecten magellanicus K.S. Naidu and G. Robert 15.1 Introduction 15.2 Distribution 15.3 History of fishery 15.4 Population biology 15.5 Growth and yield per recruit 15.6 Gear and boats 15.7 Exploitation and resource management 15.8 Outlook References
  • Chapter 16. Sea Scallop Aquaculture in the Northwest Atlantic G. Jay Parsons and Shawn M. C. Robinson 16.1 Introduction 16.2 History of sea scallop culture 16.3 Hatchery spat production 16.3.1 Broodstock conditioning 16.3.2 Spawning methods 16.3.3 Egg and larval development 16.3.4 Settlement and metamorphosis 16.3.5 Spat husbandry 16.4 Wild spat collection 16.4.1 Spat collection techniques 16.4.2 Settlement intensity 16.4.3 Maximising spat collection 16.4.4 Spat growth 16.4.5 Spat sorting 16.5 Intermediate culture 16.5.1 Growth 16.5.2 Stocking density 16.5.3 Depth 16.5.4 Season 16.5.5 Location 16.5.6 Survival 16.5.7 Gear selection 16.5.8 Strategies for intermediate culture 16.6 Final grow-out 16.6.1 Suspension culture 16.6.2 Bottom culture 16.6.3 Growth 16.7 Scheduling and strategies 16.8 Site selection 16.8.1 Environmental criteria Temperature and salinity regime Ice coverage Wind Bottom type Turbidity 16.8.2 Biological constraints Predators Fouling organisms Phycotoxins Diseases and parasites 16.9 Products and marketing 16.10 Economics 16.11 Social issues 16.12 Future prospects Acknowledgments References
  • Chapter 17. Bay Scallop and Calico Scallop Fisheries, Culture and Enhancement in Eastern North America Norman J. Blake and Sandra E. Shumway 17.1 Introduction 17.2 Fisheries 17.2.1 Bay scallop, Argopecten irradians Distribution Biology Fishery 17.2.2 Calico scallop, Argopecten gibbus Distribution Biology Fishery 17.3 Aquaculture and enhancement 17.4 Future References
  • Chapter 18. Scallops of the West Coast of North America Raymond B. Lauzier and Neil F. Bourne 18.1 Introduction 18.2 Fisheries 18.2.1 Weathervane scallop Biology Fishery Gear Management 18.2.2 Rock scallop Biology Fishery 18.2.3 Pink and spiny scallops Biology Fisheries Management 18.3 Aquaculture 18.3.1 Pink and spiny scallops 18.3.2 Weathervane scallop 18.3.3 Rock scallops 18.3.4 Japanese weathervane scallop 18.3.5 Pacific calico scallop 18.4 Future Acknowledgments References
  • Chapter 19. The European Scallop Fisheries for Pecten maximus, Aequipecten opercularis and Mimachlamys varia Andrew R. Brand 19.1 Introduction 19.2 Biology and ecology 19.2.1 The great scallop, Pecten maximus (L.) 19.2.2 The queen scallop, Aequipecten opercularis (L.) 19.2.3 The black or variegated scallop, Mimachlamys varia (L.) 19.3 Fisheries 19.3.1 Isle of Man 19.3.2 Scotland 19.3.3 England and Wales 19.3.4 Northern Ireland 19.3.5 Republic of Ireland 19.3.6 France 19.3.7 Spain 19.4 The future Acknowledgments References
  • Chapter 20. European Aquaculture Mark Norman, Guillermo Román and Oivind Strand 20.1 Introduction 20.2 Pecten maximus 20.3 Aequipecten opercularis 20.4 Chlamys varia 20.5 Summary References
  • Chapter 21. Scandinavia Oivind Strand and G. Jay Parsons 21.1 Introduction 21.2 Chlamys islandica 21.2.1 Biology 21.2.2 Fishery 21.2.3 Aquaculture 21.3 Pecten maximus 21.3.1 Biology 21.3.2 Fishery 21.3.3 Aquaculture 21.4 Aequipecten opercularis Acknowledgments References
  • Chapter 22. Japan Yoshinobu Kosaka and Hiroshi Ito 22.1 Introduction 22.2 Patinopecten (Mizuhopecten) yessoensis 22.2.1 Biology 22.2.2 Fishery 22.2.3 Culture 22.2.4 Seed production 22.2.5 Spat collection 22.2.6 Intermediate culture 22.2.7 Hanging culture 22.2.8 Fouling 22.2.9 Sowing culture 22.2.10 Enemy clearance 22.2.11 Seed sowing 22.2.12 Care 22.2.13 Recapture 22.2.14 Value 22.2.15 Processing 22.2.16 Occurrence of shellfish poisoning 22.3 Future 22.3.1 Technology 22.3.2 Control of culture 22.3.3 Cost-reduction 22.3.4 Concept 22.4 Pecten albicans 22.4.1 Biology 22.4.2 Fishery 22.4.3 Culture 22.5 Chlamys (Mimachlamys) nobilis 22.5.1 Biology 22.5.2 Culture Acknowledgments References
  • Chapter 23. Scallop Culture in China Ximing Guo and Yousheng Luo 23.1 Introduction 23.2 Zhikong scallop 23.2.1 Shell morphology 23.2.2 Distribution 23.2.3 Growth 23.2.4 Reproduction 23.3 Other scallop species 23.3.1 Huagui scallop 23.3.2 Non-native species 23.4 Fishery 23.5 Aquaculture 23.5.1 Species and history 23.5.2 Collection of natural seed for Zhikong scallop 23.5.3 Hatchery production of bay scallop 23.5.4 Grow-out 23.6 Harvest, processing and marketing Acknowledgments References
  • Chapter 24. Scallops Fisheries and Aquaculture of Northwestern Pacific, Russian Federation Victor V. Ivin, Vasily Z. Kalashnikov, Sergey I. Maslennikov and Vitaly G. Tarasov 24.1 Introduction 24.2 Taxonomic status 24.3 Biology and ecology 24.3.1 Chlamys albida 24.3.2 Chlamys asiatica 24.3.3 Chlamys behringiana 24.3.4 Chlamys chosenica 24.3.5 Chlamys farreri 24.3.6 Chlamys swifti 24.3.7 Delectopecten randolphi 24.3.8 Mizuhopecten yessoensis Total populations and biomass Distribution in Primorye Distribution over depths Age structure of scallop settlements Scallop growth Sex structure of settlements Replenishment Spawning Larvae morphology Development in plankton Migration behaviour Risk factors Abiotic factors Storms Predators Parasites Bacterial contamination Epibionts 24.4 Fishing and aquaculture 24.4.1 Fishing History Fishing gear Yesso scallop landings Primorsky territory Sakhalin-Kurile region Yesso scallop commercial stock Primorsky territory Sakhalin-Kurile region Aniva Bay Terpenie Bay Kuriles Commercial Chlamys scallops Primorye Kurile Islands In Bering Sea Other Chlamys species Chlamys farreri Chlamys swifti 24.4.2 Aquaculture History Present situation Marketing The culture methods Spat collection Intermediate culture Transport of scallop seed Sowing or on-bottom culture Hanging or off-bottom culture Obstacles to mariculture development Ecological constraints associated with cultivation Predation Epibionts Biofouling of cultivation structures Effect of scallop mariculture on coastal ecosystems Future prospects Acknowledgments References
  • Chapter 25. Scallop Aquaculture and Fisheries in Brazil Guilherme S. Rupp and G. Jay Parsons 25.1 Introduction 25.2 Nodipecten nodosus € biology, aquaculture and fisheries 25.2.1 Taxonomy and distribution 25.2.2 Ecology 25.2.3 Reproduction 25.2.4 Aquaculture Status Culture technology Wild seed collection Hatchery production Growout Constraints 25.2.5 Fisheries and marketing 25.2.6 Future prospects 25.3 Euvola (Pecten) ziczac € biology, aquaculture and fisheries 25.3.1 Taxonomy and distribution 25.3.2 Ecology 25.3.3 Reproduction 25.3.4 Aquaculture Status technology Wild seed collection Hatchery production Growout Constraints 25.3.5 Fisheries 25.3.6 Future prospects Acknowledgments References
  • Chapter 26. Argentina Néstor F. Ciocco, Mario L. Lasta, Maite Narvarte, Claudia Bremec, Eugenia Bogazzi, Juan Valero and J.M. (Lobo) Orensanz 26.1 Introduction 26.2 The Tehuelche scallop, Aequipecten tehuelchus 26.2.1 Biology 26.2.2 Population dynamics 26.2.3 Fisheries The inshore dredge fishery of San Matías Gulf The commercial diving fishery of San José Gulf 26.2.4 Aquaculture Spat collection Vertical distribution of settlement Temporal variation in settlement Type of collector Location Influence of depth, type of collector and location on the average size of the €seed€ Growth in suspended structures of spat obtained from collectors Larval culture in the laboratory Prospects and problems 26.3 The Patagonian scallop, Zygochlamys patagonica 26.3.1 Biology and ecology 26.3.2 Population dynamics and stock assessment 26.3.3 The fishery Exploratory surveys and experimental fishing programs Management Development of the fishery Observers program Ecological effects of fishing Marketing Acknowledgments References
  • Chapter 27. Scallop Fishery and Aquaculture in Chile Elisabeth von Brand, German E. Merino, Alejandro Abarca and Wolfgang Stotz 27.1 Introduction 27.2 Species description 27.2.1 Argopecten purpuratus (Lamarck 1819) the northern scallop 27.2.2 Zygochlamys patagonica (King and Broderip 1831) the southern scallop 27.2.3 Chlamys vitrea (King & Broderip, 1831) the southern scallop€. 27.3 Fisheries 27.3.1 Argopecten purpuratus, the northern scallop 27.3.2 Chlamys vitrea and Zygochlamys patagonica, the southern scallop 27.4 How scallop aquaculture started in Chile 27.5 Aquaculture production 27.5.1 Production stages Hatchery broodstock conditioning and spawning Larval stage Settlement, metamorphosis and postlarval stage Seed supply Ongrowing stage 27.5.2 Constraints and opportunities for northern scallop hatcheries 27.5.3 Interaction between natural beds and aquaculture 27.5.4 Recovery of a natural bed of Argopecten purpuratus 27.5.5 Final overview and projections of Chilean scallop farming Acknowledgments References
  • Chapter 28. Venezuela César J. Lodeiros, Luis Freites, Maximiano Nuñez, Anibal Vélez and John H. Himmelman 28.1 Introduction 28.2 Distribution, habitat and reproduction 28.2.1 Euvola (Pecten) ziczac 28.2.2 Argopecten nucleus 28.2.3 Nodipecten (Lyropecten) nodosus 28.2.4 Amusium papyraceum and Amusium laurenti 28.3 Fisheries 28.4 Aquaculture 28.4.1 Euvola ziczac Gonad maturation and spawning Spat production Grow-out 28.4.2 Nodipecten nodosus Gonad maturation and spawning Spat production Grow-out 28.4.3 Argopecten nucleus 28.5 Perspectives for culture References
  • Chapter 29. Mexico Esteban Fernando Félix-Pico 29.1 Fishery 29.1.1 Introduction 29.1.2 Species and distribution of scallops 29.1.3 History of the fishery 29.1.4 Status of the resource Reproductive biology Size at maturity Fecundity Maturity and spawning Population biology Abundance and density 29.2 Exploitation of the resource 29.2.1 Fishing areas 29.2.2 Fishing seasons 29.2.3 Fishing operations and results 29.2.4 The market value-landings data from 1970 to 2000 29.3 Constraints 29.3.1 Pollution 29.3.2 Biological constraints 29.3.3 Predation 29.3.4 Resource management constraints 29.4 Harvesting and transporting 29.4.1 Methods 29.4.2 Marketing 29.5 Expected future 29.6 Aquaculture 29.6.1 Introduction 29.6.2 Species 29.6.3 History 29.7 Hatchery techniques 29.7.1 Conditioning 29.7.2 Induction of spawning and fertilisation 29.7.3 Larval culture and metamorphosis 29.7.4 Genetic enhancement Selection Crossbreeding Triploidy 29.7.5 Antibiotics 29.8 Natural spat 29.8.1 Methods employed 29.8.2 Spat collection 29.9 Growth 29.9.1 Suspended cultures 29.9.2 Bottom cultures 29.9.3 Factors influencing growth 29.10 Mortality 29.10.1 Suspended culture 29.10.2 Bottom culture 29.11 Constraints 29.12 Future prospects References
  • Chapter 30. Scallop Fisheries, Mariculture and Enhancement in Australia Mike Dredge 30.1 Introduction 30.2 History of the fisheries 30.3 Biology of target species 30.3.1 Pecten fumatus Distribution and life cycle Mortality Monitoring, abundance and population dynamics 30.3.2 Amusium balloti Distribution and life cycle Mortality Monitoring, abundance and population dynamics 30.4 Fisheries and their management 30.4.1 Pecten fumatus Regulation Environmental management and sustainability issues 30.4.2 Amusium balloti Regulation Environmental management and sustainability issues 30.5 Culture of scallops in Australia 30.5.1 Pecten fumatus Tasmania Spat production Culture operations Victoria New South Wales South Australia 30.5.2 Amusium balloti 30.6 Summary Acknowledgments References
  • Chapter 31. New Zealand Islay D. Marsden and Michael F. Bull 31.1 Introduction 31.2 Biology 31.2.1 Morphology 31.2.2 Distribution 31.2.3 Life cycle 31.2.4 Growth rates 31.2.5 Mortality
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