Primary Wood Processing - Principles and Practice
John C.F. Walker
This book is primarily a general text covering the whole sweep of the forest industries. The over-riding
emphasis is on a clear, simple interpretation of the underlying science, demonstrating how such principles
apply to processing operations. The book considers the broad question "what is wood?" by looking at the biology,
chemistry and physics of wood structure. Wood quality is examined, and explanations are offered on how and why
wood quality varies and the implications for processing. Finally, various "industrial processes" are reviewed and
interpreted. All chapters have been written by specialists, but the presentation targets a generalist audience.
Hardcover 596 pp ISBN 9781402043925
Of interest to students studying forestry, forest engineering and wood processing, cross-disciplinary postgraduate
students whose programmes require such knowledge, managers employed in both forestry and primary processing
industries with very diverse skills who start with no appreciation of the growing of trees, the properties of wood
and the diversity of processing options
- The structure of wood: form and function. 1.1 Introduction. 1.2 The microscopic structure
of softwoods. 1.3 The microscopic structure of hardwoods. 1.4 The microscopic structure of bark.
- Basic wood chemistry and cell wall ultrastructure. 2.1 Introduction. 2.2 The structure of cellulose.
2.3 The cellulose microfibril and cellulose biosynthesis. 2.4 The structure of hemicelluloses. 2.5 The structure
of lignin. 2.6 The cell wall structure of a softwood tracheid. 2.7 Distribution of cell constituents. 2.8 Wood extractives.
- Water in wood. 3.1 Introduction. 3.2 Some definitions. 3.3 The density of wood tissue.
3.4 The amount of air in oven-dry wood. 3.5 The fibre saturation point. 3.6 Hysteresis and adsorbed
water in the cell wall. 3.7 Measuring the fibre saturation point. 3.8 Theories of adsorption.
3.9 Distribution of water within the cell wall. 3.10 Where is the adsorbed water within the cell wall?
3.11 Characteristics of adsorbed water in the cell wall.
- Dimensional instability in timber. 4.1 Introduction. 4.2 Shrinkage and swelling of wood.
4.3 Extractive bulking. 4.4 Anisotropic shrinkage and swelling of wood. 4.5 Theories for anisotropic shrinkage.
4.6 Movement and responsiveness of lumber. 4.7 Coatings. 4.8 Dimensional stabilization. 4.9 Panel products.
- Wood quality: in context. 5.1 Introduction. 5.2 Market pull or product push. 5.3 Industry requirements.
5.4 Spatial distribution within trees. 5.5 Density. 5.6 Tree form: size, compression wood and knots.
5.7 Softwood plantation silviculture. 5.8 Eucalyptus for wood production.
- Wood quality: multifaceted opportunities.6.1 Introduction. 6.2 Moving closer to markets.
6.3 Stiffness. 6.4 Microfibril angle. 6.5 Breeding for increased stiffness. 6.6 Acoustics to select for stiffness.
6.7 Near infrared to predict wood quality. 6.8 Strength and adsorption of energy. 6.9 Fibre length.
6.10 Spiral grain. 6.11 Heartwood. 6.12 Growth stress and reaction wood. 6.13 Endgame.
- Sawmilling. 7.1 Introduction. 7.2 Basic saw types and blades. 7.3 Mill design. 7.4 Mill efficiency.
7.5 Aspects of optimising sawlog breakdown. 7.6 Flexibility.
- Drying of timber. 8.1 Introduction. 8.2 The drying elements. 8.3 Surface temperature.
8.4 The movement of fluids through wood. 8.5 The external drying environment. 8.6 Drying methods.
8.7 A conventional kiln schedule. 8.8 High-temperature drying above 100oC. 8.9 Drying degrade.
8.10 Practical implications of drying models.
- Wood preservation. 9.1 Introduction. 9.2 Organisms that degrade wood. 9.3 Natural durability.
9.4 Philosophy of protection. 9.5 Preservative formulations. 9.6 Treatment processes.
9.7 Health and environmental issues.
- Grading timber and glued structural members. 10.1 Introduction. 10.2 Theoretical strength of wood.
10.3 Timber grading for non-structural purposes. 10.4 Visual grading of structural lumber.
10.5 Machine-graded structural timber. 10.6 Adjusting structural timber properties for design use.
10.7 Glued structural members. 10.8 Fire. 10.9 Timber structures.
- Wood-based composites: plywood and veneer-based products. 11.1 Introduction. 11.2 Trends.
11.3 Plywood. 11.4 Raw material requirements. 11.5 Plywood manufacture. 11.6 Competition
and technological change. 11.7 Sliced veneer. 11.8 Timber-like products.
- Wood-based panels: particleboard, fibreboards and oriented strand board. 12.1 Introduction.
12.2 Overview. 12.3 Markets. 12.4 Characterising wood-based panels.12.5 History of wood-based
composites. 12.6 Raw materials. 12.7 Generalised panel production line. 12.8 Product standards and
panel performance. 12.9 Conclusion.
- Pulp and paper manufacture. 13.1 Introduction. 13.2 An overview of processing options.
13.3 Paper. 13.4 Wood preparation. 13.5 Mechanical pulping. 13.6 Cleaning, washing and screening.
13.7 Bleaching mechanical pulps. 13.8 Semichemical pulping. 13.9 Chemical pulping. 13.10 Sulphite pulping processes.
13.11 Sulphite pulping technology. 13.12 Chemical recovery of sulphite liquors. 13.13 Kraft pulping.
13.14 Process chemistry and alkaline delignification mechanisms. 13.15 The kraft pulping process.
13.16 Extended kraft delignification. 13.17 The kraft recovery cycle. 13.18 By-products of softwood pulping.
13.19 Other processes and their potential. 13.20 Bleaching of chemical pulps. 13.21 Effluent loads and disposal.
13.22 The manufacture of paper. 13.23 Beating of chemical pulps. 13.24 Papermaking. 13.25 The fourdrinier
papermachine. 13.26 Cylinder machines for paperboards. 13.27 Paper additives, paper coatings and wet-end
chemistry. 13.28 Fibre characteristics. Appendix A. Some definitions and test methods.
- The energy sector: a hidden goliath. 14.1 Introduction. 14.2 Characteristics of wood as a fuel.
14.3 Charcoal. 14.4 Fast pyrolysis of wood. 14.5 Wood gasification. 14.6 Wood as a feedstock for liquid fuels.
14.7 Methanol production. 14.8 Ethanol production from synthesis gas. 14.9 Fischer-Tropsch liquids.
14.10 Hydrolysis of wood. 14.11 Ethanol production by acid hydrolysis and fermentation.
14.12 Ethanol via simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. 14.13 Liquid fuels.
14.14 Energy and climate change.
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