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Science in Thermal and Chemical Biomass Conversion

Edited by A.V. Bridgwater and D.G.B Boocock 
CPL Press  April 2006  



Hardback - 2 volumes  xv + 956 pp (vol 1) and 984 pp (vol 2)  ISBN 1872691978      £199.00
Note The list price of this book is £220.00. The above price is a special offer for purchases made through the CPL Press on-line bookshop.

These are the proceedings of the sixth conference in the international series of conferences that began in 1982 with Fundamentals of Thermochemical Biomass Conversion in Estes Park, Colorado, USA. Since the last conference on Progress in Thermochemical Biomass Conversion held in the Tyrol, Austria, in 2000, there has been considerable progress in the science and technology of this aspect of bioenergy.

In many parts of the world, thermal and chemical processes have assumed a dominant role in meeting the growing demands for renewable energy. This conference once again covers all aspects of thermal and chemical biomass conversion systems from fundamental research through applied research and development to commercial applications that reflect the progress made in the last four years.

This time the conference included aspects of chemical conversion that reflect the rapidly growing interest in biorefineries. It also encompasses the whole bioenergy chain from production of biomass through all stages of preparation, pretreatment and thermal conversion to utilisation of end products.

One of the major features of this conference series is the high quality of all the presentations and papers, which is achieved by subjecting all contributions to a full peer review process.

An important aim of these meetings is to provide the widest opportunities to exchange ideas, discuss problems with fellow researchers, and to hear about the latest research and development. This was achieved in two ways:

  • all posters were formally presented in short presentations to provide all authors and all delegates with the opportunity to meet each other face to face and benefit from the ensuing intimate interaction of a small and interested group
  • the workshop programme further encouraged this interaction in those areas of interest selected by participants.

The research community will continue to provide the lead in developing new science and technology and in stimulating innovation. The benefits from the interactions at this conference, now presented in almost 2000 pages of technical information, will eventually translate into new and/or better products and processes, which will not only provide the justification for continued research and development, but will also more rapidly translate into commercial processes and products and help to deliver the promises of the bio-energy sector.

Contents

Preface
Acknowledgements

Volume 1

Combustion

Aerosol formation in fixed-bed biomass furnaces - results from measurements and modelling, Brunner T, Jöller M, Obernberger I
Particle emissions from combustion of single wood pellets, Johansson L, Martinsson L, Tullin C, Leckner B
Kinetic study of the thermal degradation of waste wood in air atmospheres, Reina J, Roca X, Velo E, Puigjaner L
Detailed chemical kinetics modelling of NOx reduction by staged air combustion at moderate temperatures , Skreiberg O, Becidan M, Hustad JE, Mitchell RE
The study of fuel-nitrogen chemistry during combustion of low-grade fuels in a low-NOx burner , Wu C, Damstedt B, Tree D, Baxter LL
Conversion of fuel nitrogen during combustion of biofuel in a fixed bed - measurements inside the bed, Samuelsson J, Rönnbäck M, Leckner B, Tullin C
Formation of dioxins during combustion of salt-laden hog fuel, Watkinson A P, Li Y-H, Bi XT, Grace JR, Lim CJ
A SEM-EDS and XRD study of the factors affecting the melting behaviour of biomass ash, Ollila HJ, Tiainen MS, Hannula E, Nuutinen LH, Daavitsainen J, Laitinen RS
Ash deposition rates for a suite of biomass fuels and fuel blends, Dunaway D, Lokare S, Anderson M, Baxter L, Tree D, Junker H
Effects of particle shape and size on biomass reactivity, Lu H, Scott J, Echols K, Foster P, Ripa B, Farr R, Baxter LL
Investigation on NOx reduction during waste co-firing in a 50 kW combustion reactor, Di Nola G, Spliethoff H
Reduction of NOX and PCDD/F by combination of underfeed stoker and suspension combustion designed for air staging and fuel staging, Nussbaumer T, Fastenaekels H
Effects of fuel ash composition on corrosion in biomass-fired boilers, Lokare S, Dunaway D, Rogers D, Anderson M, Baxter LL, Tree D
Measurements of flue gas alkali concentrations in circulating fluidized bed combustion of high alkali biofuels, Glazer MP, Schurmann H, Monkhouse P, de Jong W, Spliethoff H
Industrial testing of a system for agglomeration detection and control, Korbee R, van Ommen JR, Lensselink J, Nijenhuis J, Kiel JHA
Agglomeration propensity of meat and bone meal fuel and other biofuels, Nuutinen L, Ollila H, Tiainen M, Laitinen R S
Estimation of the temperature in the bottom region of a fluidized-bed furnace burning biomass, Niklasson F, Johnsson F, Leckner B
Low particle furnace for wood pellets based on advanced staged combustion, Oser M, Nussbaumer T
Operating conditions in biomass waste combustion in a conical spouted bed, San José MJ, Alvarez S, Ortiz de Salazar A, Olazar M, Bilbao J
The dynamics of grate combustion systems: modelling and validation, van Kessel LBM, Brem G
Two-dimensional numerical simulations of a moving bed of wood, Ströhle J, Austegard A, Gronli M, Pettersen T
Advanced CFD modelling of pulverised biomass combustion, Zahirovic S, Scharler R, Obernberger I
CFD modelling of NOx formation in biomass grate furnaces with detailed chemistry, Scharler R, Widmann E, Obernberger I
Biomass co-firing in pulverised-coal-fired boilers - technical possibilities and limitations, Kiel J, Korbee R, Bergman PCA, van Passen SVB
Biomass-coal co-combustion: opportunity for affordable renewable energy, Baxter L
Biomass fly ash in concrete, Wang S, Baxter LL, Fonseca F

Feed Preparation

Towards biomass classification for energy applications, Jones J, Nawaz M, Darvell L I, Ross A, Pourkashanian M, Williams A
Relaxation characteristics of pelletized wheat and barley straws, corn stover and switchgrass, Mani S, Sokhansanj S, Tabil LG
Pulverization technique of ligneous biomass and its effective utilization, Kobayashi N, Sato T, Okada N, Itaya Y, Mori S
Acidic hydrolysis of lignocellulose in production of fuel alcohol, Yuan C, Ren ZW, Li T, Zhang S, Yan YJ
BIOCA - biomass streams to produce cellulose acetate, Harrison I, Huttenhuis PJG, Heesink ABM
Desalination of salt laden hog fuel using CCE-multicontactor technology, McGuffie B, Smith P
Modelling of biomass supply logistics, Sokhansanj S, Mani S

Biodiesel

Biodiesel: meeting the standards, Boocock DGB, Hundal N
Synthesis, characterization and applications of vegetable oil derived esters as diesel additive, Dalai AK
Non-catalytic biodiesel fuel production by supercritical methanol treatment, Kusdiana D, Minami E, Saka S
Correlations of fuel cold properties of biodiesel with its fatty acid composition, Imahara H, Minami E, Kusdiana D, Saka S
Demonstration of unmixed steam reforming of vegetable oil, Ross AB, Hanley I, Dupont V, Jones JM, Twigg MV
Production of synthesis gas from pyrolysis of glycerol, Thiruchitrambalam V, Mishra HK, Bakhshi NN, Dalai AK

Gasification Processes

Thermal cracking kinetics of biomass derived vapours: comparison of two experimental and theoretical approaches, Baumlin S, Ndiaye FT, Broust F, Ferrer M, Lédé J
Factors influencing wood char gasification at macro-particle scale, Mermoud F, Golfier F, van de Steene L, Salvador S, Girard P
Fundamental studies on gasification of biomass and coke, Hornung U, Richter F, Krebs L, Hornung A, Seifert H
Gasification reactivity of large biomass pieces, Moilanen A, Vepsäläinen J, Kurkela E, Konttinen J
Influence of the temperature and air/biomass ratio in the air gasification of orange peel, Aguiar L, García LM, Resende FLP, Sánchez JL, Arauzo J
Modelling of tar reduction in biomass fuelled gasification using biomass char as a catalyst, Abu El-Rub ZY, Bramer EA, Brem G
Tar formation in a fluidised-bed biomass gasifier: impact of biomass properties, van Paasen SVB, Kiel JHA
Continuous High Temperature Air/steam Gasification (HTAG) of biomass, Kalisz S, Lucas C, Jansson A, Blasiak W, Szewczyk D
Modeling the dynamic behaviour of a CFB biomass gasifier: a population balance approach, van Berkel AI, Brem G
Use of CFD FLUENT code to simulate the air flow through a wood particles bed for the design of large downdraft gasifiers, Jeanmart H, Navez F, Seynhaeve J-M
Carbon conversion predictor for fluidized bed gasification of biomass fuels - model concept, Konttinen J, Hupa M, Moilanen A, Kurkela E
Gas composition in a fixed bed of biofuel - measurements in and above a downward propagating front, Rönnbäck M, Samuelsson J, Tullin C, Thunman H, Leckner B
Gasification of woody and herbaceous biomass in a small-scale entrained gasifier: comparison of Japanese cedar and Italian ryegrass, Ogi T, Nakanashi M, Inoue S
Tar levels in a stratified downdraft gasifier, Hla SS, Aye L, Stewart DF, Connor MA, Fung PYH, Ng HS
Multi agricultural fuelled staged gasifier with dry gas cleaning: LIFTOFF, van de Steene L, Mermoud F, Girard P
Gasification of agricultural waste with steam/air in a fluidized bed, Chen J-S, Wu K-T, Juch C-I, Lee H-T
Fluidised-bed gasification of high-alkali biomass fuels, Kurkela E, Kurkela M, Moilanen A
Hydrogen-rich gas production with a Ni-catalyst in a dual fluidized bed biomass gasifier, Pfeifer C, Rauch R, Hofbauer H, Swierczynski D, Courson C, Kiennemann A
Catalytic gasification of biomass using black liquor, Morishita K, Kasahara K, Takarada T
Energetic valorization of solid residues: pyrolysis of olive husks, Taralas G, Kontominas MG
Co-gasification of ternary blends of biomass, coal and plastic waste at bench scale, Aznar MP, Caballero AM, Sancho JA
Gasification of leather wastes in a downdraft gasifier: results and emissions, Peacocke GVC, Connor A, Jackson G, Langlois S
Gasification of urban biomass (i.e. sorted MSW: essentially biomass, plastics and inorganics), Gagnon M, Valsechi B, Mincic A, Abatzoglou N, Chornet V, Chornet E

Gasification Products

Standardisation of the 'Guideline' method for measurement of tars and particles in biomass producer gases, Coda B, van de Kamp WL, de Wild PJ, Zielke U, Suomalainen M, Knoef HAM, Good J, Liliedahl T, Unger C, Ventress L, Neeft JPA, van de Hoeck HW, Kiel JHA
Influence of catalyst composition in steam reforming of toluene as a model compound of biomass gasification tar, García L, Martínez D, Arauzo J, Bilbao R
Filtration efficiency of a moving bed granular filter, Ritzert J, Brown RC, Smeenk J
Filtration of biomass and waste-derived gasification product gas, Nieminen M, Kurkela E
Comparison of different olivines for biomass steam gasification, Rauch R, Pfeifer C, Bosch K, Hofbauer H, Swierczynski D, Courson C, Kiennemann A
Study of reaction behaviour of calcium compounds in steam gasification of biomass using a CO2 sorbent, Fujimoto S, Hanaoka T, Kuramoto K, Hatano H, Yokoyama S, Minowa T
Doped zirconias in catalytic cleaning of gasification gas, Juutilainen SJ, Simell PA, Krause AOI
Dry catalytic reforming: a review of the current scientific and technical status of the process and testing of a new 2D catalyst formulation, Blanchard J, Abatzoglou N, De Oliveira-Vigier K, Gitzhofer F, Gravelle D
Scale-up of a reactive adsorption process for the purification of biogas produced by psychrophilic anaerobic fermentation of swine manure biomass, Abatzoglou N, Truong LV-A
Methanation of biosyngas in a pressurised bench scale reactor using a slip stream of the FICFB gasifier in Güssing, Seemann M, Biollaz S, Aichernig Ch, Rauch R, Hofbauer H, Koch R
Development of catalysts for methane and tar compound reforming 864 Zhang R, Wang Y, Brown RC, Ding X
Synthesis of methanol from biomass-derived syngas, Yin X, Leung DYC, Chang J, Wang JF, Wu CZ
Reforming of product gas applied for pressurised oxygen gasification of biomass for production of transportation fuels - preliminary results, Padban N, Waldheim L
The BioMax 15: the automation, integration and pre-commercial testing of an advanced down-draft gasifier and engine/gen set, Diebold J, Browne K, Duncan D, Fields M, Smith T, Walker M, Walt R
Operation and techno-economics of a Capstone micro-turbine operated on downdraft gasifier producer gas, Peacocke GVC, Connor A, Jackson G, Bullman S
Reburning of engine exhaust gas using biogas, syngas and producer gas, Joseph S, Denniss T, Klatt P, Dawson A, Coa W
CHRISGAS project: manufacture of a clean hydrogen-rich gas through biomass gasification and hot gas upgrading, Waldheim L, Morris M, Ståhl K, Gårdmark L
A study of the catalytic activity of unsupported nickel catalysts, for use in internal reforming solid oxide fuel cells, Rakass S, Rowntree P, Abatzoglou N
Comparison of performance data of a solid oxide fuel cell using biomass gasification gas and natural gas, Norheim A, Hustad JE, Byrknes J, Vik A

Volume 2

Hydrothermal and Supercritical

Heavy metals, PAH and PCB emissions from short rotation crop combustion, Delcarte J, Delcarte E, Maesen P, Schenkel Y
Biomass gasification in supercritical water: first results of the pilot plant, Boukis N, Galla U, Diem V, Dinjus E
Effect of heating rate on tarry material production in supercritical water gasification, Matsumura Y, Nagata K, Kikuchi Y
Catalytic hydrothermal gasification of woody biomass at high feed concentrations, Vogel F, Waldner M
Chemical conversion of biomass resources to useful chemicals and fuels by supercritical fluid technology, Saka S
Chemical conversion of woody biomass in supercritical methanol to liquid fuels and chemicals, Minami E, Saka S
Decomposition behaviour of woody biomass as treated in various supercritical alcohols, Yamazaki J, Minami E, Saka S
Decomposition behavior of lignocellulosics by supercritical water treatment and its process for their efficient use, Ehara K, Saka S
Decomposition of chitin and chitosan by subcritical and supercritical water treatments, Yoshida K, Ehara K, Saka S
HTU- process design and development: innovation involves many disciplines, Goudriaan F, Naber JE, Zeevalkink JA
Hydrothermal liquefaction and pyrolysis: a visualization study, Knezevic D, Rep M, Kersten SRA, Prins W, van Swaaij WPM
Carbonization of cellulose by hot compressed water treatment, Inoue S, Uno S, Ogi T, Minowa T
Evaluation of thermochemical liquidization and anaerobic digestion for food waste management system based on GHG emission, Tsukahara K, Minowa T, Yagishita T, Ogi T, Sawayama S

Pyrolysis Processes

Transport models for biomass fast pyrolysis, Di Blasi C
A novel thermogravimetric vortex reactor for the determination of the primary pyrolysis rate of biomass, Bramer EA, Holthuis MR, Brem G
A new kinetic model for cellulose pyrolysis based on the change of its macromolecule structure, Sunagawa K, Hasegawa I, Mae K
A modified method to estimate kinetic parameters for biomass and coal pyrolysis by TGA, Zhang X, Heikkinen J, de Jong W, Spliethoff H
A novel method to measure biomass reactivity in a fluidised bed, van Berkel AI, Brem G
Pyrolysis mechanism of lignin studied with milled wood lignin and dimeric lignin model compounds, Kawamoto H, Nakamura T, Saka S
Surface temperature of wood particles during rapid pyrolysis: laser-induced phosphorescence measurements and modelling, Svenson J, Pettersson JBC, Omrane A, Ossler F, Aldén M, Bellais M, Liliedahl T, Sjöström K
The transport phase of pyrolytic oil exiting a fluidized bed reactor, Daugaard D, Brown RC
The role of metals in biomass pyrolysis, char formation and char properties, Jones JM, Williams A, Darvell L I, Nawaz M, Baxter X
Nitrogen, sulphur, chlorine and heavy metal behaviour during biomass pyrolysis and gasification, Hrbek J, Hofbauer H, Hrbek M
Thermogravimetric studies of waste wood in nitrogen, air and carbon dioxide atmospheres, Reina J, Velo E, Manya J, Puigjaner L
A study on the slow pyrolysis of six plantation Eucalyptus species and comparison of yields of pyrolytic products, Fung P, Ng HS
Effect of fuel particle shape and size on devolatilization time of Casuarina wood, Renu Kumar R, Kumar Kolar A, Leckner B
Fast pyrolysis of birch bark, Piskorz J, Borys A
Fast pyrolysis yields from sugar cane bagasse, Piskorz J, Scott DS
Fluidized bed pyrolysis of Cuban pine sawdust, Suarez JA, Beaton PA, Zanzi R, Grimm A
Pyrolysis of meat and bone meal, Ayllon M, Sanchez JL, Gea G, Arauzo J
Experiments on the pyrolysis of biomass, Schröder E
Pyrolysis of biomass in fluidized bed reactor in production of liquid fuel, Ren ZW, Li TC, Zhang SP, Yuan CM, Yan YJ
Catalytic pyrolysis of biomass, Adam J, Blazsó M, Mészáros E, Stöcker M, Nilsen MH, Bouzga A, Hustad JE, Gronli M, Oye G
An experimental study on catalytic decomposition of biomass pyrolysis products, Lv P, Chang J, Wang T, Fu Y, Chen Y
Mathematical model for pyrolysis of biomass in a spout-fluidized bed reactor, Chen M-Q, Ren Z-W, Li T-C, Yao Y-J, Yan Y-J
Model for the recycling-flow characteristic of quartz sand mixed with sawdust in a spout-fluidized bed reactor, Chen M-Q, Yao Y-J, Ren Z-W, Li T-C, Yan Y-J
Bio-oil from a new ablative pyrolyser, Schöll S, Klaubert H, Meier D
Analysis of the process conditions for fast pyrolysis, Wang X, Kersten SRA, Prins W, van Swaaij WPM
Potential of the biomass fast pyrolysis technology to bio-oil production in Brazil, Rocha JD, Mesa-Pérez JM, Olivares-Gómez E, Fionareli A, Cortez LAB Advance in the thermal depolymerization of lignin via base-catalysis, Vigneault A, Johnson DK, Chornet E
Solar powered pyrolysis of biomass in high-temperature molten salt medium, Adinberg R, Epstein M

Pyrolysis Products

Chemical characterization of pyrolysis lignin from softwood vacuum pyrolysis oil, Pakdel H, Vasile CL, Roy C
An experimental study of nitrogen species release during municipal solid waste (MSW) and biomass pyrolysis and combustion, Becidan M, Skreiberg O, Hustad J
Testing of pyrolysis oil emulsions in small scale boiler pumps: preliminary results, Chiaramonti D, Soldaini I, Milani S, Bonini M, Baglioni P
Spray characterization of a softwood bark vacuum pyrolysis oil, Garcìa-Pérez M, Chaala A, Kretschmer D, De Champlain A, Hughes P, Roy C
Nozzle testing and development for bio-oil combustion, Preto F, Gogolek PEG, Wong JKL
Firing a pilot lime kiln with bio-oil, Li Y-H, Watkinson A P, Barr PV
Origin of NOx emission from bio-oil flames, Stamatov V, Honnery D, Fung PYH, Soria J
An assessment of bio-oil toxicity for safe handling and transportation: toxicological and ecotoxicological tests, Girard P, Blin J, Bridgwater AV, Meier D
De-oxygenation of bio-oils, Rep M, Venderbosch RH, Assink D, Tromp W, Kersten SRA, Prins W, van Swaiij WPM
Hydrogenation of bio-oil for chemical and fuel production, Elliott DC, Neuenschwander GG, Hart TR, Hu J, Solana AE, Cao C
Preparation and characterisation of biomass slurries: a new feed for entrained flow gasification, Raffelt K, Henrich E, Steinhardt J, Dinjus E
Spray characteristics for the gasification of pyrolysis oil slurries, Wiemer H-J, Santo U, Kolb T, Pantouflas E, Zarzalis N
Clean syngas from bio-oil/char-slurries, Henrich E, Raffelt K, Stahl R, Weirich F
Nickel-catalyzed carbonization of biomass pyrolysis tar to produce crystallized carbon for electromagnetic shielding, Suzuki T, Miyanoto M, Luo W-M, Yamada T, Yoshida T
Study of two parameters in the production of charcoal in beehive kiln, Guyat Dupuy MA, Friol P, Ramos R, Capote V
The black gold from green waste project at the University of Hawaii, Nunoura T, Antal MJ
Production and gasification of storable char from biomass, Ryu C, Sharifi VN, Swithenbank J
Biodegradability of fast pyrolysis oil, Blin J, Volle G, Maghnaoui N, Girard P

Systems

Economic assessment of international bioenergy trading, Beckman D, McKeough P, Solantausta Y, Hamenlink C, Wagener M, Kjellstrom B
Opportunities for bio-oil in European heat and power markets, Brammer JG, Bridgwater AV, Jungmeier G, Lauer M
Liquid fuel synthesis throughout biomass to transportable liquid (BTL) system, Hanoaka T, Yokoyama S, Minowa T
Renewable transportation fuels from biomass and black liquor, Hunsaker M, Barlow E, Johnson R, Griffin D, Briggs D, Baxter L
Greenhouse gas emissions of energy systems with bio-oil - A comparison to conventional bioenergy and fossil energy systems, Jungmeier G, Canella L
Electricity and heat generation by combustion and gasification of wood residues and straw - a strategic assessment, Kälber S, Leible L, Kappler G, Lange S, Nieke E, Wintzer D, Fürniss B
Competitiveness and CO2 mitigation costs of biogenic residues and waste for heat and power production, Leible L, Kälber S, Kappler G, Lange S, Nieke E, Wintzer D, Fürniss B
GIS-based evaluation of energy provision from waste and biomass plant at local community level, Longden DM, Brammer JG, Cooper N
Thermochemical routes to hydrogen from biomass - a review, Czernik S, Elam CC, Evans RJ, Milne TA
'Green Gas' as SNG (synthetic natural gas) - a renewable fuel with conventional quality, Mozaffarian H, Zwart R, Boerrigter H, Duerwaarder E, Kersten S
Biomass energy - current situation in the Czech Republic, Noskievic P, Ochodek T
Techno-economic assessment of power production from the Wellman and BTG fast pyrolysis processes, Peacocke GVC, Bridgwater AV, Brammer JG
Dispatch management of MSW power plant - based on a risk and financial engineering approach, Taralas G, Kontominas MG
Politics and economics of using wheat straw for the co-manufacture of paper and energy, Wong A
Industrial usage of rice straw in California - limitations and opportunities, Wong A
Biomass Japan strategy, Yokoyama S, Sasaki Y, Samura H
Author Index (at the end of Volume 1 and Volume II)
Subject Index (at the end of Volume 1 and Volume II)

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