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Fusarium Mycotoxins: Chemistry, Genetics, and Biology

Anne E. Desjardins 
APS  2006  



Hardcover  268, illustrated  ISBN 0890543356      £85.00
This comprehensive book examines the chemistry, genetics, and biology of Fusarium mycotoxins. It covers major and minor mycotoxins and other biologically active metabolites that can be harmful to both human and animal health. Past and present research is covered, providing both a historical concept on the topic, as well as guidelines for further research. Descriptions of Fusarium species assist in visual identification of species, while complete profiles will help assess risk as well give a background on geographic trends. And tables summarizing the distribution of mycotoxins among Fusarium species allow for quick reference to mycotoxins and Fusarium species.

The book begins by presenting landmarks in the study of Fusarium mycotoxins from 1809 to 2005. These historical case studies and controversies document the relevance of mycotoxins to human and animal health. Also included is a thorough review of the molecular genetics of both trichothecene and fumonisin biosynthesis, presenting more than 15 years of molecular biological research in an accessible form. Part one then reviews the natural occurrence and toxicity of agriculturally important mycotoxins, with historical case studies of suspected mycotoxicoses in humans and animals. These chapters also contain updates on the molecular genetics of additional mycotoxins and the importance of mycotoxins in plant diseases.

This useful reference presents concise descriptions of mycotoxin-producing Fusarium species, as defined by the most recent concepts of fungal species biology and evolution. Each species€ report includes a risk assessment based on its mycotoxin profile, occurrence in food and feed crops, and association with human and animal mycotoxicoses. Data on species distribution, mycotoxin profiles, and animal toxicity facilitate risk assessment for food and feed safety.

This book will be of interest to: agronomists, biological chemists, cereal chemists, food technologists, fungal geneticists, human nutritionists, international agricultural development agencies, molecular microbiologists, mycologists, plant breeders, plant pathologists, toxicologists, veterinary scientists, and advanced students in these fields. In addition, public health regulatory agencies that are interested in assessing and managing risks associated with Fusarium mycotoxins in food and feeds will find this an excellent resource.

Contents

Introduction to Fusarium Mycotoxicology

Part One. Fusarium Mycotoxins

Chapter 1. Trichothecenes: Historical Case 1: Alimentary Toxic Aleukia in Russia and Central Asia, Historical Case 2: Akakabi-byo in Japan, Historical Case 3: Swine Feed Refusal in the Central United States, Historical Case 4: The Yellow Rain Controversy.
Trichothecene Chemistry
Overview of Trichothecene-Producing Fusarium Species
Identification and Analysis of Trichothecenes
Natural Occurrence of Trichothecenes In North America, In South America, In Europe, In Africa, In the Middle East and South Asia, In East Asia, In Southeast Asia, Australia, and New Zealand
Trichothecene Genetics
Trichothecene Biosynthetic Pathway
Trichothecene Biosynthetic Enzymes
Trichothecene Biosynthetic Genes
Trichodiene Synthase (TR15)
Cytochrome P450 Monoxygenases
Trichodiene Oxygenase (TRI4)
Isotrichodermin 15-Oxygenase (TRI11)
Calonectrin 4-Oxygenase (TRI13 and YTRI13)
Triacetoxyscirpenol 8-Oxygenase/Calonectrin 8-Oxyenase (TRI1)
Enzymes that Add or Remove Ester Groups
Trichothecene 15-O-Acetyltransferase (TRI3)
Trichothecene 3-O-Acetyltransferase (TRI101)
Trichothecene 3-O-Esterase (TRI8)
Trichothecene 4-O-Acetyltransferase (TRI7 and YTRI7)
Trichothecene 8-O-Acetyltransferase (TRI16 and YTRI16) Transcription Factors and Transporters
Transcription Factor (TRI6)
Trichothecene Transporter (TRI12)
Regulatory Gene (TRI10)
Transcripton Factor (TRI15)
Coregulated Genes
Trichothecene Biology
Mechanism of Action of Trichothecenes
Biological Activity of Trichothecenes in Animal Systems
Biological Activity of Trichothcenes in Plant Systems
Applications of Trichothecenes to Plant Breeding

Chapter 2. Zearalenones
Historical Case: Swine Estrogenic Syndrome in the Central United States
Zearalenone Chemistry
Overview of Zearalenone-Producing Fusarium Species
Identification and Analysis of Zearalenones
Natural Occurrence of Zearalenones, In North America, In South America, In Europe, In Africa, In Asia, In Australia and New Zealand
Zearalenone Genetics
Zearalenone Biosynthesis
Zearalenone Biology
Mechanism of Action of Zearalenones
Biological Activity of Zearalenones in Animal Systems
Biological Activity of Zearalenones in Plant Systems and Applications to Plant Breeding

Chapter 3. Fumonisins
Historical Case 1: Equine Leukoencephalomalacia in the United States, Historical Case 2: Swine Pulmonary Edema in the Central United States, Historical Case 3: Esophageal Cancer in South Africa, Historical Case 4: Neural Tube Defects Along the Texas-Mexico Border
Fumonisin Chemistry
Overview of Fumonisin-Producing Fusarium Species
Identification and Analysis of Fumonisins
Natural Occurrence of Fumonisins In North America, In South America, In Europe, In Africa, In the Middle East and South Asia, In East Asia, In Southeast Asia and Australia
Fumonisin Genetics
Fumonisin Biosynthetic Pathway
Fumonisin Biosynthetic Genes
Polyketide Synthase (FUM1)
C-3 Carbonyl Reductase (FUM13)
Fumonisin 5-Oxygenase (FUM3)
Tricarballylic Esterification (FUM7, FUM10, FUM11, and FUM14)
Additional Required Genes in the FUM1 Gene Cluster
Additional Coregulated Genes in the FUM1 Gene Cluster
Fumonisin Biology
Mechanism of Action of Fumonisins
Biological Activity of Fumonisins in Animal Systems
Biological Activity of Fumonisins in Plant Systems
Applications of Fumonisins to Plant Breeding

Chapter 4. Other Selected Mycotoxins
Beauvericin, Chemistry, Genetics, Biology, Enniatins, Chemistry, Genetics, Biology
Fusaproliferin, Chemistry, Biology
Fusaric Acids, Chemistry, Biology
Fusarins, Chemistry, Biology
Moniliformin, Chemistry, Genetics, Biology

Chapter 5. Other Selected Metabolites
Acuminatum, Butenolide, Chlamydosporol, Culmorin, Cyclodepsipeptide HA23, Cyclonerodiol, Equisetin, Fusarochromanone, Gibberellins, Naphthoquinones, Sambutoxin, Wortmannin,

Part Two. Mycotoxigenic Fusarium Species

Chapter 6. Selected Mycotoxigenic Fusarium Species Fusarium acuminatum and Fusarium armeniacum, Fusarium acutatum, Fusarium andiyazi, Fusarium anthophilum, Fusarum avenaceum, Fusarium aywerte, and Fusarium nurragi, Fusarium begoniae, Fusarium beomiforme, Fusarium camptoceras, Fusarium chlamydosporum, Fusarium circinatum, Fusarium compactum, Fusarium concentricum, Fusarium crookwellense (syn. Fusarium cerealis), Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium denticulatum, Fusarium dlamini, Fusarium equiseti, Fusarium fujikuroi, Fusarium globosum, Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium guttiforme, Fusarium konzum, Fusarium kyushuense, Fusarium lateritium, Fusarium moniliforme (see Fusarium verticillioides), Fusarium napiforme, Fusarium nygamai, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium phyllophilum, Fusarium poae, Fusarium proliferatum, Fusarium pseudograminearum, Fusarium sacchari, Fusarium sambucinum, Fusarium semitectum, Fusarium solani, Fusarium sporotrichioides, Fusarium subglutinans, Fusarium thapsinum, Fusarium torulosum, Fusarium tricinctum, Fusarium venenatum, Fusarium verticillioides

Literature Cited
Index

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American Phytopathological Society : New 2006 : biology, general : chemistry : food safety : food science : genetics : mycology : toxins

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