Insect Management for Food Storage and Processing, Second Edition

Edited by Jerry W. Heaps 
AACC  2006  

Hardcover  248 pp  ISBN 1891127462      £145.00
This Second Edition has been completely revised and updated with new chapters on topics including, inspection techniques; retail pest management; environmental manipulation (e.g. hot, cold, modified atmospheres, ionization) to control insects; and the latest scientific research on integrated pest management (IPM) control techniques. Common and unusual exterior/interior pest insects are covered and examples of both chemical and non-chemical pest insect control strategies are thoroughly discussed. The book provides the latest practical and scientific research information on how to solve pest insect problems in a timely and economical manner.

Chapter authors are recognized around the world as experts in their respective fields. Scientific language is put in simple terms so those working in a food plant or warehouse environment can easily take information from the chapters and apply it for effective pest insect control strategies. Control methods explained have survived the test of time. This edition is timely due to the rapidly changing pesticide and food safety regulatory environment food processing personnel must work in every day.

Chapter information presented is original research that contains basic reference material, literature reviews and actual pest insect case histories that author's have experienced with control methods that work. The book is written so its readers can pick it up and use it as a ready reference right on the plant floor. It is a must read for commercial and structural pest control operators, technicians, or directors; food plant inspectors, auditors, and plant sanitarians; as well as QA managers, food safety consultants, and university extension personnel.



  • Pest Identification;
  • Holistic Pest Management;
  • Prevention: Sanitation, Inspection, Monitoring, Engineering, Good Manufacturing Practices
Part I. Basics of Insect Pest Management
  • Integrated Pest Management Strategies for the Food Industry
  • Raw-Material Supplier; Food-Processing Facility: Insect-Monitoring Devices, Processing Equipment as a Control Strategy, Packaging Design Strategy, Sanitation Strategies, Product Distribution and Transport; Potential Insect-Control Strategies Under Development for the Food Industry
  • Role of the Pest Management Professional in Food-Processing Pest Management
  • Then and Now; Decisions: Contract (Outside Vendor) Pest Management: Advantages, Disadvantages; In-House Pest Management Programs: Advantages, Disadvantages; Are Shared Programs an Option?; Role of the Pest Management Professional: A Partnership, What PMPs Must Do
  • Inspection Techniques - Where to Begin; Exterior Grounds; Roof Areas; Plant Interior: Managing Space, Seeing the Space Facility Inspections:Supporting Insect Pest Management in the Food-Manufacturing Environment Plant Grounds: The Immediate Plant-Exterior Environment; Building(s) Construction Elements and Maintenance: Utilities, Physical Structure, Plant Equipment, Cleaning Programs and Practices: Procedures, The Master Sanitation Schedule, Integrated Pest Management Programs, Employee Hygiene: Personnel cGMPs, Finished-Product Warehouse, Receiving: Material-Handling Programs, Shipping: Transportation Guidelines, The Inspection Report
  • Insect-Resistant Packaging History of Food Packaging; Importance of Insect-Resistant Packaging; Insect Response to Food Odor; Insect Pests of Packaged Foods; Testing for Insect Resistance; Methods to Reduce Infestation
  • Stored-Product Insect Behavior, Exploitation of Patchy Environments: Fundamental Principles, Stored-Product Insects, Implications for Pest Management; Response to Stimuli: Fundamental Principles, Effects on Stored-Product Insects, Implications for Pest Management
Part II. Environmental and Nonchemical Manipulation
  • Insect Light Traps History; Principles of Operation: Attraction€Energy (Light) Spectrum, Fluorescent Lamp Operation, Ultraviolet Lamp Types, Lamp Life Loss, Safety-Coated Ultraviolet Lamps, Trapping and Containment; Trap Construction: Components, General Trap Designs; Regulation and Compliance Concerns: Audit Guidelines, Electrical and Health Issues, Safety Certification; System Design: Three-Phase System, Surveying and Inspecting; Miscellaneous Facility Management for Flying Insect Control: Exclusion Strategies, Lighting, Window Tinting, Exterior Structure Color, Grounds
  • Biological Control of Stored-Product Pests Advantages of Biological Control; Disadvantages of Biological Control; Approaches of Biological Control; Natural Enemies: Insect Parasitoids, Insect Predators, Fungi, Granulovirus, Bacteria; Bulk Grain Storage: Predators, Parasitoids Field Studies, Integration; Mills, Bakeries, Warehouses, and Retail Stores: Parasitoids, Predators, Nematodes, Field Studies, Integration; Future of Biological Control in Stored Products
  • Temperature Modification for Insect Control Background and History of Heat Treatments; Effects of Heat on Insects: Heat Tolerance in Insects; Calculating Heat Energy Requirements; Delivery of Heat Treatments: Planning, Safety Considerations During Heat Treatments, Monitoring Heat Treatments, Post-Heat-Treatment Activity; Heat-Treatment Case Studies: Study 1. An In-House Heat Treatment of a Malting Facility, Study 2. Heat Treatment of the Kansas State University Pilot Feed Mill
  • Modified Atmospheres for the Control of Stored-Product Insects and Mites Overview: Background and History, Definitions and Uses of MA, Modifying the Atmosphere of the Storage Ecosystem; Effects of MA on Stored-Product Insects and Mites: Lethal Action of MA on Insects, Interrelated Physical Environment Effects, Biochemical Effects, Physiological Effects, Behavioral Effects; Effects of MA on Product Quality: Germination of Seeds, Product Quality Preservation, Sorption of Carbon Dioxide, Corrosion Potential of Carbon Dioxide; Generation and Application of MA: Generation of MA, Methods for Applying Modified Atmospheres, Sealing and Pressure Test for Gastightness, Monitoring Gas Concentrations; Specific Applications of MA: Cereal-Grain Preservation, Preservation of Tree Nuts and Dried Fruits, Disinfestation of Dates, Packaging of Food, Museum Artifacts, Fresh Storage of Fruits and Vegetables, Narcissus Bulb Treatments; Economics of Treatment: Cost of Sealing, Cost of Gas; Current Usage oF MA; Research Needs: Laboratory Work, Field Work
  • Irradiation Irradiation Effects on Pests; Radiation Effects on Storage Pests: Sensitivity to Radiation, Radiation Doses Required; Irradiation Equipment for Disinfestation: Reality and Concepts: Physics Lesson; So, What€s New in Irradiation?:Gamma Treatment of Rice, Fluid-Bed Processing of Grain; Pest Control in an Irradiation Facility
  • Pheromones for Stored-Product Protection A World of Odors; History of Pheromone Study; Pheromones of Stored-Product Insects; Pheromones (and Lures) Are Not Created Equal: Pheromone Types, Traps of a Different Design; Using Pheromone Traps: Know the Pest, Placement of Traps, Outdoor Trapping, Interpreting Trap Catch, Trap Maintenance; Tips for Using Pheromone Traps; Trapping Stored-Food Moths: Female Moth Attractant, Discovery, Control, Moth Suppression Limitations; Trapping Stored-Food Beetles: Beetle Traps, Controlling Saw-Toothed Grain Beetles, Case Study: Distribution in Warehouse; Capturing Multiple Stored-Product Insect Species with a Pheromone Pitfall Trap: Case Study: Pet Food Retail Store
Part III. Chemical Control
  • Insect Management with Residual Insecticides Classes of Residual Insecticides; Residual Insecticide Applications; Factors Affecting Residual Insecticide Performance: Sanitation, Surface Effects, Insecticide Class and Formulation, Toxicity and Exposure Interval, Environmental Effects, Insect Species and Response to Insecticides
  • Insecticide Space Treatments in Food Plants The Concept of Space Treatments; Types of Equipment for Aerosol Space Treatment: Pressurized Aerosols (Cans and Cylinders), Mechanical Particle Generators (Aerosol Generators, Cold Foggers, Thermal Foggers); Compounds Used for Space Treatments: Insecticides, Insect Growth Regulators; Safety Practices: Product Protection, Safety of Personnel, Site Preparation and Security, Managing Space Treatment Programs, Future Research
  • Commodity and Space Fumigations in the Food Indus¬try When to Choose Fumigation; Physical Conditions that Affect Fumigation; Movement of Gases; Dosage and Exposure Periods; Good Sealing is Vital; Placarding of Fumigated Areas; Choice of Fumigants; Methyl Bromide: Before Methyl Bromide: Hydrogen Cyanide, Introduction of Methyl Bromide, Handling of Methyl Bromide, Phaseout; Phosphine (Hydrogen Phosphide): Fumigation of Railroad Hopper Cars, Phosphine Labeling Requirements for Certified Applicator to Be Present, Procedures for Aerating Phosphine-Fumigated Railcars€Hopper Type; Sulfuryl Fluoride: Sulfuryl Fluoride Advantages; Preparation for Fumigation of a Food-Handling Facility with Profume: Fumigant Dosage Factors: Temperature Factor, Before Fumigant Release, Monitoring; Fumigation Management Plan: Preliminary Planning and Preparation, Personnel, Monitoring, Notification, Sealing Procedures, Application Procedures and Fumigation Period, Post-Application Procedures; Future Trends in Fumigation
Part IV. Safety and Environmental Health
  • Insecticides and Occupational Health in the Food Industry Types of Insecticides Found in the Food Industry; Usage in the Food Industry; Hazards of Insecticides; Routes of Entry and Protection Techniques; The Respiratory Protection Program; Toxicological Concepts; Safe Insecticide Usage; Determining Insecticide Exposure Concentrations; Medical Examinations; First Aid Treatment; Emergency Treatment For Insecticide Poisoning; Government Regulations
Part V. Summary
  • The Science and Technology of Postharvest Insect Control: Challenges, Accomplishments, and Future Directions
  • Challenges: The Law, A Case Study, Evolution of Control Methods, Methyl Bromide and Its Alternatives, The New Threat: Bioterrorism; Research Accomplishments and Prospects: Research Organizations, Biology of Insect Cells and Molecules, Insecticide Research, Biological and Bio-Rational Controls Monitoring, Sampling, and Predicting Pests, Implementing IPM Systems
  • Index

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