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Bioactive Marine Natural Products

Edited by Bhakuni, D.S., Rawat, D.S. 
Springer  2005  


Hardcover  400  ISBN 9781402034725      £144.00
Marine natural products have attracted the attention of biologists and chemists the world over for the past five decades. As a result of the potential for new drug discovery, marine natural products have attracted scientists from different disciplines, such as organic chemistry, bioorganic chemistry, pharmacology, biology and ecology. This interest has led to the discovery of almost 8,500 marine natural products to date and many of the compounds have shown very promising biological activity. The ocean is considered to be a great source of potential drugs.

Bioactive Marine Natural Products is the first book available that covers all aspects of bioactive marine natural products. It fills the void in the literature for bioactive marine natural products. The book covers various aspects of marine natural products and it is hoped that all the major classes of bioactive compounds are included. Different classes of marine organisms and the separation and isolation techniques are discussed. The chemistry and biology of marine toxins, peptides, alkaloids, nucleosides and prostanoids are discussed in detail. Biological, toxicological and clinical evaluations are also dealt with to ensure that the book may be adopted at any stage by any practicing organic chemist or biologist, working in academia or in R&D division s of pharmaceutical companies. Each chapter in the book includes an abstract to highlight the major points discussed in the text and concluding remarks are given. References to books, monographs, review articles and original papers are provided at the end of each chapter.

Written for research scientists, teachers and students in academia, researchers in pharmaceutical companies, libraries of colleges, universities, institutions, and pharmaceutical companies

contents


1. Bioactive Metabolites of Marine Algae, Fungi and Bacteria
1.1. Introduction
1.2. Secondary metabolites of Marine Algae
1.3. Bioactive metabolites
1.3.1. Brominated phenols.
1.3.2. Brominated oxygen heterocyclics.
1.3.3. Nitrogen heterocyclics.
1.3.4. Kainic acids.
1.3.5. Guanidine derivatives.
1.3.6. Phenazine derivatives.
1.3.7. Amino acids and amines.
1.3.8. Sterols.
1.3.9. Sulfated polysaccharides.
1.4. Marine Bacteria and Fungi
1.5. Micro algae
Concluding Remarks
References

2. Bioactive Metabolites of Marine Invertebrates
2.1. Introduction
2.2. Bioactive Metabolites
2.2.1. Steroids.
2.2.2. Terpenoids.
2.2.3. Isoprenoids.
2.2.4. Prostaglandins.
2.2.5. Quinones.
2.2.6. Halogenated compounds.
2.3. Marine Toxins
2.3.1. Tetrodotoxin.
2.3.2. Saxitoxin.
2.3.3. Pahutoxin.
2.4. Marine Nucleosides
2.5. Bioactive Metabolites of Marine Sponges
2.6. Marine Invertebrates of the Andaman & Nicobar Islands
Concluding Remarks
References

3. Separation and Isolation Techniques
3.1. Introduction
3.2. Separation Techniques
3.2.1. Water soluble constituents.
3.2.2. Ion-exchange chromatography.
3.2.3. Reverse-phase columns.
3.2.4. High/medium Pressure chromatography.
3.2.5. Combination of Ion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography.
3.3. Bioassay directed fractionation
3.4. General Fractionation
3.5. Isolation Procedures
3.5.1. Amino acids and simple peptide.
3.5.2. Peptides.
3.5.3. Nucleosides.
3.5.4. Cytokinins.
3.5.5. Alkaloids.
3.6. Marine Toxins
3.6.1. Saxitoxins.
3.6.2. Brevetoxins.
3.6.3. Tetrodotoxins.
3.6.4. Ciguatoxins.

3.6.5. Maitotoxins.
3.6.6. Palytoxins.
3.6.7. Gambierol.
3.6.8. Okadaic acids.
3.6.9. Miscellaneous toxins.
Concluding Remarks
References

4. Biological, Toxicological and Clinical Evaluation
4.1. Introduction
4.2. Types of Screening
4.3. Screening Models and Activity
4.4. Anticancer Screening
4.5. Testing Methods
4.6. Toxicity Evaluation
4.7. Use of Animals in Experiments
4.8. Clinical Trials Concluding Remarks
References

5. Bioactivity of Marine Organisms
5.1. Introduction
5.2. Bacteria and Fungi
5.3. Phytoplanktons
5.4. Bioactivity of Marine Organisms
5.4.1. Seaweeds.
5.4.2. Seaweeds of Indian Coasts.
5.4.3. Marine Invertebrates of Indian Coast.
5.4.4. Search of Pharmaceutically useful compounds.
5.5. Actinomycetes
Concluding Remarks
References

6. Biosynthesis of Bioactive Metabolites of Marine Organisms
6.1. Introduction
6.2. Problems of Biosynthetic Studies
6.3. Feeding Techniques
6.4. Biosynthesis of Metabolites of Algae
6.4.1. Saxitoxins.
6.4.2. Brevetoxins.
6.4.3. Tetrodotoxin.
6.4.4. Sterols.
6.5. Metabolites of Blue-Green Algae
6.6. Metabolites of Macro Algae
6.7. Metabolites of Marine Invertebrates
6.7.1. Sponges.
6.7.2. Coelenterates.
6.7.3. Molluscs.
6.8. Biosynthesis of Cholesterol
6.9. Biosynthesis of Arsenic containing Compounds
6.10. Problems of Microbial Contamination
Concluding Remarks
References

7. Bioactive Marine Toxins
7.1. Introduction
7.2. Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning
7.2.1. Transfer of Toxin between organisms.
7.2.2. Saxitoxins.
7.2.3. Detection of Paralytic Shellfish toxins.
7.2.4. Tetrodotoxin.
7.3. Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning
7.3.1. Brevetoxins
7.4. Ciguatera
7.4.1. Ciguatoxin and its Congeners.
7.4.2. Maitotoxin.
7.4.3. Palytoxin and its Congeners.
7.4.4. Gambierol. 7.4.5. Gambieric Acids.
7.5. Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning
7.5.1. Okacaic Acid and its Congeners.
7.5.2. Dinophysistoxins.
7.5.3. Pectanotoxins.
7.5.4. Yessotoxin.
7.6. Other Miscel1ancous Toxins
7.6.1. Amphidinolides.
7.6.2. Amophidinol. 7.6.3. Prorocentrolide.
7.6.4. Goniodomin-A.
7.6.5. Surugatoxin.
7.6.6. Neosurugatoxin.
7.6.7. Macroalgal Toxins.
7.6.8. Toxic Substances of Chondria armata.
7.6.9. Aplysiatoxin.
7.6.10. Toxic Peptides.
Concluding Remarks
References

8. Bioactive Marine Nucleosides
8.1. Introduction
8.2. Pyrimidine and Purine, 1--D Arabinosides
8.2.1. Spongothymidine (Ara-T).
8.2.2. Spongouridine (Ara-U).
8.2.3. Analogs of Spongouridine.
8.2.4. Spongoadenosine (Ara-A).
8.3. Pyrimidine 2`-Deoxyribosides
8.3.1. 2'-Deoxyuridine.
8.3.2. Thymidine.
8.3.3. 3-Methyl-2'-Deoxyuridine.
8.3.4. 3-Methyl-2'-Deoxy cytidine.
8.3.5. 3'-Deoxyadenosine.
8.4. Pyrimidine and Purine, l- -D-Ribosides
8.4.1. Spongosine.
8.4.2. Analogs of Spongosine.
8.4.3. Isoguanosine.
8.4.4. Doridosine.
8.5. Pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine nucleosides
8.6. 9-[5`-Deoxy-5`-(methylthio)- -D-Xylofuranosyl]adenine
8.7. 5`-Deoxy-5`-dimethyl arsinyl adenosine
8.8. Miscellaneous compounds
Concluding remarks
References

9. Bioactive Marine Alkaloids
9.1. Introduction
9.2. Pyridoacridine Alkaloids
9.3. Pyrroloacridine Alkaloids
9.4. Indole Alkaloids
9.5. Pyrrole Alkaloids
9.6. Isoquinoline Alkaloids
9.7. Miscellaneous Alkaloids
Concluding Remarks
References

10. Bioactive Marine Peptides
10.1. Introduction
10.2. Peptide conformation
10.3. Bioactive marine peptides
10.3.1. Marine Algae.
10.3.2. Sponges.
10.3.3. Tunicates.
10.3.4. Ascidians.
10.3.5. Coelenterates.
10.3.6. Molluscs.
10.4. Cone Snail Venoms
10.5. Sea Urchin Egg/Jelly
10.6. Marine Worm
10.7. Marine Vertebrates
Concluding Remarks
References

11. Marine Prostaglandins
11.1. Introduction
11.2. Marine Organism
11.2.1. Plexaura homomalla.
11.2.2. Clavularia viridis.
11.2.3. Lobophyton depressum.
11.2.4. Telesto riizei.
11.2.5. Gracilaria lichenoides.
11.3. Biosynthesis
11.4. Biological Activity
Concluding Remarks
References

Index

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Springer : biochemistry : bioproducts : marine organisms : pharmaceuticals : seas and salt water : speciality chemicals : toxins : water science

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