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Integrated Life-Cycle and Risk Assessment for Industrial Processes

Guido Sonnemann, Francesc Castells and Marta Schuhmacher 
CRC Press  2003  



Hardback  392 pp  ISBN 9781566706445      £127.00
  • Delivers unique, parallel presentation of life-cycle assessment and risk assessment
  • Outlines methods of integrating risk assessment and life-cycle assessment
  • Supplies techniques for data analysis conducted during the analysis of environmental impacts
  • Provides a practical format containing flowcharts, examples, exercises, and applications
  • Compiles the findings of distinguished researchers in the field
  • Analyzes a solid waste management case study with combined methods, presenting each step as a pilot project

    Environmental engineers, industrial ecologists, hazardous waste managers and other professionals within the environmental field recognize the importance of incorporating elements of risk assessment with life-cycle assessments. ,These analytical tools have become increasingly a part of environmental management practices. But until now this development has been ignored by textbook literature for graduate students and professionals.

    Integrated Life-Cycle and Risk Assessment for Industrial Processes covers the use of life-cycle assessment, risk assessment, and a combined framework of the two in the estimation of environmental damage, providing explanations of methods and descriptions of practical applications in the environmental analysis of industrial processes.

    The book opens by examining environmental strategies, then places life-cycle and risk assessment within an environmental toolbox, and explores the integration of the two methods via a case study. This volume is one of the first attempts to illustrate the interfaces between the tools and considers options for continued integration. The new communication between life-cycle assessment experts and risk assessment scientists results in a manual that is practical and useful in environmental analysis and decision making.

    Contents

    BASIC PRINCIPLES IN ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT
    Problem Setting
    Overall Strategies
    Business Goals
    Concepts
    Tools
    Procedural Tools
    Example: Municipal Waste Incineration as Environmental Problem - the Case of Tarragona, Spain
    Questions and Problems: Examples of Decision-Making Situations in Environmental Management

    LIFE-CYCLE ASSESSMENT
    Introduction to Life-Cycle Assessment
    LCA Framework and the ISO 14000 Pattern
    Goal and Scope Definition
    Life-Cycle Inventory
    Calculation Example
    Case Study: LCA Study of an MSWI in Tarragona, Spain

    LIFE-CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT
    Introduction
    Phases of LCIA
    Impact Categories
    Areas of Protection
    Midpoint and Endpoint Indicators Weighting: Single Index Approaches Endpoint and Damage-Oriented Methods
    Sophistication in Life-Cycle Impact Assessment
    Interpretation
    Calculation Example: Comparison of PET and Glass for Mineral
    Water Bottles
    Life-Cycle Tools
    Case Study: Application of LCIA Methods in the MSWI Process
    Chain LCA
    Questions and Exercises

    ENVIRONMENTAL RISK ASSESSMENT
    Introduction
    Risk Assessment
    Typology of Environmental Risk Assessment and its Role
    in Environmental Management
    Hazard Identification
    Exposure Assessment
    Dose-Response and Exposure-Response Functions
    Risk Characterization and Consequence Determination
    The Role of Risk Assessment in Environmental Management
    Decisions
    Impact Pathway Analysis
    Exercises and Problems

    UNCERTAINTY ASSESSMENT BY MONTE CARLO SIMULATION
    Introduction
    Types of Uncertainties in Environmental Impact Assessment
    Ways to Deal with Different Types of Uncertainty
    Experiences to Assess Uncertainty in Life-Cycle Assessment
    Former Uncertainty Assessment in Impact Pathway Analysis
    Introduction to Monte Carlo Simulation
    Uncertainty Assessment in Life-Cycle Inventory
    Uncertainty Assessment in IPA
    Types of Probability Distributions Used
    Application of the Framework to Life-Cycle Inventory of Electricity
    Produced by a Waste Incinerator 176
    Application of Framework to IPA of Waste Incinerator Emissions on a Local Scale
    Assigning Probability Distributions to Considered Parameters
    Comparison of Uncertainties in Life-Cycle Inventory and IPA
    Example: Risk Assessment to PCDD/Fs in Tarragona, Spain, Usingthe Monte Carlo Approach
    Exercises and Questions

    ENVIRONMENTAL DAMAGE ESTIMATIONS FOR INDUSTRIAL PROCESS CHAINS
    Introduction
    Challenges and Strategy for a Combined Framework of Life-Cycle and Risk Assessment
    Comparison of Environmental Impact Assessment and Life-Cycle Assessment
    Mathematical Foundation
    Outline of the Combined Framework
    Necessary Technical Elements
    Possible Role of the Framework in Environmental Management
    Case Study: Environmental Damage Estimations for the Waste
    Incineration Process Chain
    Exercises

    SITE-DEPENDENT IMPACT ANALYSIS
    Site-Dependent Impact Analysis
    General Framework for Site-Dependent Impact Assessment Analysis
    Generic Classes for Human Health Effects
    Site-Dependent Impact Assessment in the Methodology
    of Environmental Damage Estimations for Industrial Process Chains
    Example: Calculation of Site-Dependent Impact Factors for Catalonia, Spain
    Case Study: Site-Dependent Impact Indicators Used for the Waste Incineration Process Chain
    Uncertainties in the Methodology Including Site-Dependent Impact
    Assessment
    Exercises and Questions

    APPLICATIONS OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS IN INDUSTRIAL PROCESS CHAINS
    Introduction
    Example 1: Landfilling of Mixed Household Solid Waste (LCA)
    Example 2: Risk Assessment of the 1,1,1-Trichlorethane Emissions from Landfilling of Mixed Household Solid Waste
    Example 2.1: LCA of Universal Remote for Operating a Television and Video
    Example 2.2: Universal Remote for Operating a Television and a Video Site-Specific Environmental Assessment
    Example 3: Environmental Assessment of a Separation Process, Applying LCA and ERA
    Conclusions
    To find similar publications, click on a keyword below:
    CRC Press : analytical methods : environmental science : landfill technology : life cycle analysis : risk assessment

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