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Soil and Water Chemistry: An Integrative Approach

Michael E Essington 
CRC Press  2003  



Hardcover  552  ISBN 9780849312588      £50.00
  • Provides a comprehensive overview of the chemical and mineralogical characteristics and processes of soils
  • Explores the methodologies, analytical techniques, and computations used to express soil chemical properties
  • Utilizes environmentally and agronomically-based examples to highlight the dynamic nature of soil systems
  • Provides a complete overview of water chemistry, with a detailed focus on hydration-hydrolysis, Lowry-Bronsted and Lewis acids and bases, sampling methods, and more
  • Examines the processes that distribute matter between solid and solution phases
  • Highlights the genesis, characterization, management, and properties of acidic, saline, and sodic soil systems
  • Contains more than 300 original figures and approximately 90 tables

Traditionally the study of chemical principles as they relate to soil has been limited to the field of agronomics. Soil and Water Chemistry: An Integrative Approach, stands alone because it balances agricultural and environmental perspectives in its analysis of the chemical properties and processes that affect organic and inorganic soil substances.

Written for soil science practitioners, researchers, and students, this book provides a comprehensive treatment of soil composition and reactions. Topics include: clay mineralogy, soil organic matter, mineral weathering and stability, ion speciation, solubility, ion exchange, adsorption, oxidation-reduction, acidity, alkalinity, and salinity. Each chapter concludes with numerous exercises that emphasize concepts and have practical, real-world applications.

Contents

THE SOIL CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT: AN OVERVIEW
Phases and Chemical Processes in Soil
Elements in the Soil Environment: Their Concentrations and Important Species
Units and Conversions
Heterogeneity of Soil Chemical Characteristics

SOIL MINERALS
Chemical Bonds
Pauling's Rules
Silicate Classes
Clay Mineralogy
Division 1:1 Phyllosilicate Minerals
Division 2:1 Phyllosilicate Minerals
Hydrous Metal Oxides
X-Ray Diffraction Analysis

CHEMICAL WEATHERING
Hydrolysis and Oxidation
Balancing Chemical Reactions
Mineral Stability: Primary Silicates in the Sand- and Silt-Sized Fractions
Mineral Stability: Clay-Size Fraction
Weathering and Formation Characteristics of the Phyllosilicates
General Weathering Scheme for the Phyllosilicates

ORGANIC MATTER IN SOIL
Determination of Soil Organic Carbon Concentrations
Organic Functional Groups: a Review
Nonhumic Substances
Humic Substances
Genesis of Humic Substances
Chemical and Structural Characteristics of Humic Substances

SOIL WATER CHEMISTRY
Nature of Water
Ion Hydration
Electrolyte Solutions
Hydrolysis of Cations
Lowry-Bronsted Acids and Bases
Complex Ions and Ion Pairs
The ion association model
Ion Speciation in Soil Solutions
Qualitative Aspects of Ion Speciation
Soil Solution Sampling Methodologies
Methods of Chemical Analysis: Elemental Analysis

MINERAL SOLUBILITY
Mineral Solubility: Basic Principles
Application of Mineral Solubility Principles: Impediments
The Deviation of Ksp from Kdis
Mineral Solubility and Solution Composition
Stability Diagrams
Predicting Solution Composition

SURFACE CHEMISTRY AND ADSORPTION REACTIONS
Surface Functional Groups and Complexes
The Solid-Solution Interface: a Microscopic View
Quantitative Description of Adsorption
Specific Retention of Metals and Ligands
Ligand Effects on Metal Adsorption
Organic Surface Functional Groups and Organic Molecular Retention Mechanisms
Surface Complexation Models

CATION EXCHANGE
Cation Exchange: a Beginning for Soil Chemistry
Qualitative aspects of Cation Exchange
Cation Exchange Capacity and Exchange Phase Composition
Quantitative Description of Cation Exchange

OXIDATION-REDUCTION REACTIONS IN SOILS
The Electron Activity
Redox Potential Measurements
Redox Status in Soils
pe - pH Predominance Diagrams

ACIDITY IN SOIL MATERIALS
Measurement of Soil Solution pH
Chemical and Biochemical Processes that Influence Soil Solution pH
Acid-Neutralizing Capacity and the Quantification of Soil Acidity
Neutralization of Soil Acidity
Acid Generation and Management in Mine Spoils: the Oxidation of Pyrite

SOIL SALINITY AND SODICITY
Sources of Salts
Diagnostic Characteristics of Saline and Sodic Soils
Irrigation Water Quality Parameters and Relationships
Genesis, Management, and Reclamation of Salt-Affected Soils

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