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Biotechnology 5th Edition (Cambridge)

John E. Smith 
Cambridge University Press  2009  



Hardback  278 pp  ISBN 9780521884945      £55.00


Softcover  278 pp  ISBN 9780521711937      £25.00

Biotechnology will undoubtedly be the major technology of the twenty-first century. It concerns the practical application of biological organisms or their various components to the benefit of humankind, and spans a multitude of modern and traditional industries. The rise of genetic engineering, genomics, proteomics and the creation of transgenic crops and animals has revolutionised activities as varied as brewing beer, the treatment of sewage and wastewater, to drug development and agriculture. In this expanded fourth edition of his popular textbook, John Smith once again demystifies biotechnology, and especially genetic manipulation, clearly and accessibly explaining the history, techniques, and applications of modern biotechnology for students and the general reader. All aspects of biotechnology are covered and a positive stance is taken concerning the potential benefits to human society. In this edition, greater emphasis is given to the public perception of biotechnology and the ethical and safety questions raised.

Contents

Preface page xi

1 The nature of biotechnology 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 What is biotechnology? 2
1.3 Biotechnology: an interdisciplinary pursuit 7
1.4 Biotechnology: a three-component central core 14
1.5 Product safety 18
1.6 Public perception of biotechnology 18
1.7 Biotechnology and the developing world 19

2 Substrates for biotechnology 21
2.1 A biomass strategy 21
2.2 Natural raw materials 23
2.3 Availability of by-products 25
2.4 Chemical and petrochemical feedstocks 27
2.5 Raw materials and the future of biotechnology 28

3 Genetics and biotechnology 33
3.1 Introduction 33
3.2 Industrial genetics 35
3.3 Protoplast and cell-fusion technologies 37
3.4 Genetic engineering 40
3.5 The polymerase chain reaction 46
3.6 Genomics and proteomics 49
3.7 Potential laboratory biohazards of genetic engineering 50

4 Bioprocess/fermentation technology 52
4.1 Introduction 52
4.2 Principles of microbial growth 56
4.3 The bioreactor 60
4.4 Scale-up 67
4.5 Media design for fermentation processes 67
4.6 Solid-substrate fermentation 68
4.7 Technology of mammalian and plant cell culture 70
4.8 Downstream processing 73
4.9 Postscript 75

5 Enzyme technology 76
5.1 The nature of enzymes 76
5.2 The application of enzymes 77
5.3 Genetic engineering and protein engineering of enzymes 86
5.4 The technology of enzyme production 88
5.5 Immobilised enzymes 93

6 Biological fuel generation 102
6.1 Photosynthesis: the ultimate energy resource 102
6.2 Sources of biomass 103
6.3 Ethanol from biomass 105
6.4 Methane from biomass 112
6.5 Hydrogen 115
6.6 Postscript: microbial recovery of petroleum 116

7 Single cell protein (SCP) 118
7.1 The need for protein 118
7.2 Acceptability and toxicology of SCP 121
7.3 SCP derived from high-energy sources 123
7.4 SCP from wastes 124
7.5 SCP from agricultural crops 133
7.6 SCP from algae 133
7.7 The economic implications of SCP 134

8 Biotechnology and medicine 136
8.1 Introduction 136
8.2 Pharmaceuticals and biopharmaceuticals 140
8.3 Antibiotics 140
8.4 Vaccines and monoclonal antibodies 144
8.5 Biopharmaceuticals 147
8.6 Gene therapy 152
8.7 A cautionary note 154

9 Environmental biotechnology 156
9.1 Introduction 156
9.2 Microbial ecology/environmental biotechnology 158
9.3 Waste-water and sewage treatment 160
9.4 Landfill technologies 164
9.5 Composting 166
9.6 Bioremediation 170
9.7 Detection and monitoring of pollutants 174
9.8 Microbes and the geological environment 175
9.9 Environmental sustainability and clean technology 178

10 Biotechnology in the agricultural and forestry industries 181
10.1 Introduction 181
10.2 Plant biotechnology 182
10.3 Forest biotechnology 190
10.4 Biological control 191
10.5 Animal biotechnology 194
10.6 Diagnostics in agriculture 200

11 Food and beverage biotechnology 204
11.1 Introduction 204
11.2 Food and beverage fermentations 207
11.3 Enzymes and food processing 222
11.4 Sweeteners 224
11.5 Food wastes 225
11.6 Miscellaneous microbial-derived food products 225
11.7 Rapid diagnostics 227
11.8 Bioprocess technology 228
11.9 Public acceptance and safety of new biotechnology foods 228

12 Protection of biotechnological inventions 229
12.1 Patent protection 230
12.2 Trade secrets 233
12.3 Plant breeders' rights 234

13 Safety in biotechnology 235
13.1 Introduction 235
13.2 Concepts of hazard and risk 236
13.3 Problems of organism pathogenicity 237
13.4 Problems of biologically active biotechnology products 238
13.5 Biowarfare and bioterrorism 239

14 Public perception of biotechnology: genetic engineering safety, social, moral and ethical considerations 241
14.1 Introduction 241
14.2 Release of genetically manipulated organisms into the environment 242
14.3 Genetic modification and food uses 245
14.4 The applications of human genetic research 251

15 Looking to the future 254

Glossary 259
Further reading 263
Index

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