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Transport Processes in Nature - Propagation of Ecological Influences Through Environmental Space (with CD-ROM)

William A. Reiners, Kenneth L. Driese 
Cambridge University Press  2004  



Hardback with CD-ROM  314 pages, 77 diags, 27 illus, 6 tables  ISBN 9780521800495      £82.00


Softcover with CD-ROM  314 pages, 77 diags, 27 illus, 6 tables  ISBN 9780521804844      £42.00
This book provides a new perspective on how events or conditions in environmental space have influences at other places in that space. In the first half of the book, the authors introduce the general question of propagation of ecological influences through environmental space (terrestrial, aquatic and aerial), then lay out a system for its analysis by organization into four components: initiating events or conditions, vectors conducting influences over space, entities that are transported, and the consequences of these propagation processes. Methods of representing environmental heterogeneity and for modeling transport processes are discussed in the context of such propagations. In the second half of the book, properties of eight general transport vectors and examples of transport models in realistic ecological situations are explained. For each of the vectors, a simulation model is provided on a CD included with the book (users require access to ArcView GIS software).

Table of Contents

Preface page ix
Acknowledgements xi
part i
1 Flows and movements in ecology 3
1.1 Nature's telegraphy: three anecdotes 3
1.2 Propagation of in.uences across space: views from different subdisciplines within ecology 5
1.3 Environmental management 17
1.4 The objectives of this book 19
2 Causes, mechanisms, and consequences of propagating in.uences 20
2.1 What do we mean by "in.uences" and "propagation"? 20
2.2 Causal agents initiating the propagation of in.uences across landscape space 23
2.3 Entities propagated across environmental space 29
2.4 Propagation vectors 34
2.5 Consequences of propagation of ecological in.uences 43
2.6 Propagations and surface forms 44
2.7 Propagations and disturbance 46
2.8 Propagations as ecological linkages through space 47
2.9 A general model for space-time events 48
3 How do we see nature? 53
3.1 The issues 53
3.2 Individual cognition of nature 53
3.3 Geographic conceptualizations of space and time 56
3.4 Ontological perspectives on time and space in the environmental sciences 60
3.5 Environmental ontologies in ecology 63
3.6 Ontologies of landscape ecology 65
3.7 The central place of scale awareness in environmental science 71
3.8 A hydrodynamical concept of environmental space 73
4 Representing and predicting propagation phenomena: modeling in explicit-realistic space 76
4.1 De.nition and description of geographic information systems 76
4.2 GIS data modeling 78
4.3 Process modeling in GIS 80
4.4 GIS and environmental modeling 85
4.5 About "explicit" space 86
4.6 Summary 87

part ii
5 Introduction to Part II 91
5.1 Background 91
5.2 Overview of Part II 92
5.3 Example models 92
6 Diffusion 94
6.1 Transport system description 94
6.2 Underlying principles for mode of transport 97
6.3 Modeling techniques 98
6.4 Introduction to the example model 108
6.5 Summary 110
7 Colluvial transport 112
7.1 Transport system description 112
7.2 Underlying principles for mode of transport 113
7.3 Modeling techniques 122
7.4 Introduction to the example model 131
7.5 Summary 133
8 Wind transport 134
8.1 Transport system description 134
8.2 Underlying principles for mode of transport 135
8.3 Modeling techniques 143
8.4 Introduction to the example model 157
8.5 Summary 162
9 Fire 163
9.1 Transport system description 163
9.2 Fire as a transport phenomenon 164
9.3 Underlying principles for mode of transport 165
9.4 Modeling techniques 174
9.5 Introduction to the example model 179
9.6 Summary 181
10 Fluvial transport 182
10.1 Transport system description 182
10.2 Underlying principles for mode of transport 183
10.3 Modeling techniques 193
10.4 Introduction to the example model 211
10.5 Summary 212
11 Animal movement 213
11.1 Transport system description 213
11.2 Underlying principles for mode of transport 214
11.3 Modeling techniques 229
11.4 Introduction to the example model 238
11.5 Summary 240
12 Electromagnetic radiation 242
12.1 Transport system description 242
12.2 Underlying principles for mode of transport 243
12.3 Modeling techniques 251
12.4 Introduction to the example model 254
12.5 Summary 254
13 The propagation of sound 256
13.1 Transport system description 256
13.2 Underlying principles for mode of transport 256
13.3 Modeling techniques 263
13.4 Introduction to the example model 265
13.5 Summary 267
References 268
Index 298

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