Home


Phytochemical functional foods

Edited by I Johnson and G Williamson 
Woodhead  2003  



Hardback  336 pages  ISBN 9781855736726      £155.00
  • reviews research on the health benefits of phytochemicals
  • considers safety and quality issues in developing phytochemical products
  • written by a international team of experts
  • the standard reference on one of the most important sectors in the functional foods market

Plant foods are rich in micronutrients, but they also contain an immense variety of biologically-active, non-nutritive compounds that contribute to colour, flavour and other characteristics. These phytochemicals have been increasingly linked to reducing the risk of chronic diseases such as cancer, osteoporosis and coronary heart disease. Edited by two leading experts in the field, and with a distinguished international team of contributors, Phytochemical functional foods assesses the evidence for their health benefits and reviews the key issues involved in successful product development.

Part 1 reviews research on the health benefits of phytochemicals, including chapters on cardiovascular disease, cancer, bone and gastrointestinal health, as well as the functional benefits of particular groups of phytochemicals such as phytoestogens, carotenoids and flavonoids.

Part 2 considers the important safety and quality issues in developing phytochemical products. There are chapters on establishing appropriate intake levels, testing the safety of phytochemicals and establishing health claims through clinical trials. Part 2 also covers such issues as extracting and enhancing phytochemical compounds for use in food products.

Phytochemical functional foods will establish itself as a standard reference on one of the most important sectors in the functional foods market.

About the editors

Professor Ian Johnson is based at the UK Institute of Food Research.

Professor Gary Richardson is Head of Metabolic and Genetic Regulation at the Nestle Research Centre in Switzerland. Both have written widely on the subject of phytochemicals.

The contributors

G Williamson, Nestle Research Centre, Switzerland
F Virgili, National Institute for Food and Nutrition Research, Italy
C Scaccini, National Institute for Food and Nutrition Research, Italy
L Packer, University of California, Berkeley, USA
G Rimbach, University of California, Berkeley, USA
I Johnson, Institute of Food Research, UK
E Lund, Institute of Food Research, UK
C Boyle, Food Standards Agency, UK
K Moizer, Food Standards Agency, UK
T Barlow, Food Standards Agency, UK
B Jeffrey, Food Standards Agency, UK
S Paul, Food Standards Agency, UK
E Offord, Nestle Research Centre, Switzerland
S Southon, Institute of Food Research, UK
R Faulks, Institute of Food Research, UK
H Wang, William Ransom and Son plc, UK
G Provan, William Ransom and Son plc, UK
K Helliwell, William Ransom and Son plc, UK
Y Kimura, Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co, Ltd, Japan
Y Nagata, Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co, Ltd, Japan
R Buddington, Mississippi State University, USA
F Branca, National Institute for Food and Nutrition Research, Italy
S Lorenzetti, National Institute for Food and Nutrition Research, Italy
D Lindsay, CEBAS (CSIC), Spain
K Maki, Chicago Center for Clinical Research, USA
P Bramley, University of London, UK
J Mursa,University of Kuopio, Finland
T Nurmi, University of Kuopio, Finland
M Vanhanrata, University of Kuopio, Finland
S Voutilainen, University of Kuopio, Finland
J Salonen, University of Kuopio, Finland
J Pokorny, Prague Institute of Chemical Technology, Czech Republic
S Schmidt, Slovak Technical University, Slovak Republic
L Skibsted, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Denmark
R Cheruvanky, NutraStar Inc., USA


Contents

Introduction

Part 1: The health benefits of phytochemicals

Chapter 1: Phenolic compounds and health: an introduction
G. Williamson, Nestle Research Centre, Switzerland

Introduction: classes of phenolic compounds
Epidemiological evidence for the functional benefits of phenolics
The antioxidant activity of phenolics
Testing the functional benefits of phenolics
Biomarkers and bioavailability
Future trends
References

Chapter 2: Nutritional phenolics and cardiovascular disease
F. Virgili and C. Scaccini, National Institute for Food and Nutrition Research, Italy; L. Packer and G. Rimbach, University of California, Berkeley, USA
Introduction
LDL oxidation and atherogenesis
Polyphenols and cell response
Polyphenols and activated NF-kB
Other aspects of polyphenols as modulators of signal transduction
Indirect evidence for polyphenol activity in atherogenesis
Conclusion and future trends
List of abbreviations
References

Chapter 3: Phytochemicals and cancer: an overview
I. Johnson, Institute of Food Research, UK
Introduction
What is cancer?
The nature of tumour growth
Models of carcinogenesis
Diet and gene interactions
Cancer risk and particular nutrients
Phytochemicals
Carotenoids
Flavonoids
Phytoestrogens
Glucosinolates
Other nutritional factors
Conclusion and future trends
References

Chapter 4: Food-borne glucosinolates and cancer
I. Johnson and E. Lund, Institute of Food Research, UK
Introduction
Sources, structures and metabolites of the glucosinolates
Digestion and absorption
Glucosinolate breakdown products and cancer
Blocking the initiation phase
Suppressing the promotion phase
Summary and conclusions
Acknowledgements
Sources of further information and advice
References

Chapter 5: Phytoestrogens and health
C. Boyle, K. Moizer, T. Barlow, B. Jeffrey and S. Paul, Food Standards Agency, UK
Introduction
Mechanisms of phytoestrogen action: receptor and non-receptor mediated effects
Other effects of phytoestrogens
The health effects of phytoestrogens: osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease and thyroid function
The health effects of phytoestrogens: central nervous system and immune function
The health benefits of phytoestrogens: cancer
The health benefits of phytoestrogens: fertility, development and hormonal effects
Future trends and priorities for research
Sources of further information and advice
References

Chapter 6: Phytoestrogens and bone health
E. Offord, Nestle Research Centre, Switzerland
Introduction
Composition and metabolism of phyto-oestrogens
Human studies on soy isoflavones and bone maintenance
Animal studies on soy isoflavones and bone maintenance
Mechanisms of action of isoflavones in bone health
Dietary recommendations
Conclusion and future trends
References
Chapter 7: Carotenoids in food: bioavailability and functional benefits
S. Southon and R. Faulks; Institute of Food Research, UK

Introduction: the concept of bioavailability
The functional benefits of carotenoids: vision, cancer and cardiovascular disease
Factors affecting carotenoid bioavailability: food sources and intakes
Release from food structures: maximising availability for absorption
Absorption and metabolism
Methods for predicting absorption
Tissue concentrations
Future trends
Sources of further information and advice
References

Chapter 8: The functional benefits of flavonoids: the case of tea
H. Wang, G. Provan and K. Helliwell, William Ransom and Son plc, UK
Introduction: types of tea
Flavonoids and other components of tea
Functional benefits: cancer
Functional benefits: anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial properties
Functional benefits: cardioprotective and neuroprotective functions
Mechanisms of anticarcinogenic and other activity
Potential side-effects of tea constituents
Tea drinking and flavonoid intake
Tea extracts and their applications
Analytical methods for detecting flavonoids
Future trends
Sources of further information and advice
References

Chapter 9: Phytochemicals and gastrointestinal health
R. Buddington, Mississippi State University, USA; Y. Kimura and Y. Nagata, Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd, Japan
Introduction
The gastrointestinal tract
The influence of phytochemicals on gastrointestinal function
Phytochemicals and digestion
Phytochemicals, waste and toxin elimination and other functions
Phytochemicals, gastrointestinal bacteria and gut health
Future trends
References

Part 2: Developing phytochemical functional products
Chapter 10: Assessing the intake of phytoestrogens: isoflavones
F. Branca and S. Lorenzetti, National Institute for Food and Nutrition Research, Italy

Introduction
Assessing the dietary intake of isoflavones
Factors affecting phytoestrogen absorption and metabolism
Isoflavone intake and health
Establishing appropriate intake levels for isoflavones
Sources of further information and advice
References

Chapter 11: Testing the safety of phytochemicals
D. Lindsay, CEBAS (CSIC), Spain
Introduction: the health benefits of phytochemicals
Evaluating the safety of phytochemicals in food
Risk evaluation of food chemicals
Potential food carcinogens
Problems in assessing safety: the example of B-Carotene
Improving risk assessment of phytochemicals
Future trends
Sources of further information and advice
References

Chapter 12: Investigating the health benefits of phytochemicals: the use of clinical trials
K. Maki, Chicago Center for Clinical Research, USA
Introduction
Types of clinical trials
Hypothesis testing and trial design
Assessing sample size
Other issues in making trials effective
Sources of further information and advice
References

Chapter 13: genetic enhancement of phytochemicals: the case of carotenoids
P. Bramley, University of London, UK
Introduction
Carotenoids in plants: structure
Carotenoids in plants: distribution
The functional benefits of carotenoids
Carotenoid biosynthesis and encoding genes
Strategies for transformation to enhance carotenoids
Examples of genetically modified crops with altered carotenoid levels
Future trends
Sources of further information and advice
References

Chapter 14: Developing phytochemical products: a case study
J. Mursa, T. Nurmi, M. Vanhanrata, S. Voutilainen and J. Salonen, University of Kuopio, Finland
Introduction
Chemical enhancement of phytochemicals: the case of phloem
Heating and extraction of phenolic compounds
Measuring phenolic compounds
The functional benefits of phloem
Testing functional benefits
Future trends
Sources of further information and advice
References

Chapter 15: The impact of food processing on phytochemicals: the case of antioxidants
J. Pokorny, Prague Institute of Chemical Technology, Czech Republic and S. Schmidt, Slovak Technical University, Slovak Republic
Introduction: natural antioxidants present in foods
Changes in antioxidants: mechanisms of action
Changes during heating: water as the heat transfer medium
Changes during heating: air as the heat transfer medium
Changes during heating: where energy is transferred in waves
Changes during heating: oil as the heat transfer medium
Changes in antioxidants during non-thermal processes
Changes in antioxidants during storage
Sources of further information and advice
Future trends
References

Chapter 16: Optimising the use of phenolic compounds in foods
L. Skibsted, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Denmark
Introduction
Analysing antioxidant activity in food
Antioxidant interaction in food models
Polyphenols in processed foods
Bioavailability of plant phenols
Future trends
Sources of further information and advice
References

Chapter 17: Phytochemical products: rice bran
R. Cheruvanky, NutraStar Inc., USA
Introduction: stabilised rice bran
Phytonutrients in rice bran
Phytonutrients with particular health benefits
Functional benefits: cancer
Functional benefits: cardiovascular disease and diabetes
Functional benefits: immune function
Functional benefits: liver, gastrointestinal and colonic health
Conclusions
Acknowledgements
References

To find similar publications, click on a keyword below:
Woodhead Publishing Ltd : antioxidants : botanicals : food ingredients : food science : nutraceuticals : nutrition, human : plant science : rice : tea

Terms & Conditions | Privacy Statement

Last Modified 16/12/2013 © CPL Scientific Publishing Services Limited

Search this site Environment Ecology Energy Bioproducts Food Biotechnology Agriculture Biocontrol & IPM Life Sciences Chemistry Business