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Functional foods, ageing and degenerative disease

Edited by Prof. C Remacle and B Reusens 
Woodhead Publishing  2004  



Hardback  792 pages  ISBN 9781855737259      £195.00
Degenerative diseases linked to ageing populations are a growing problem for the developed world. Edited by two authorities, this important collection reviews the role of functional foods in helping to prevent a number of such degenerative conditions, from osteoporosis and obesity to immune system disorders and cancer.

The book begins with a number of introductory chapters which discuss the regulation of functional foods in the EU, the role of diet generally in preventing degenerative disease. Part 1 then examines bone and oral health with chapters on the use of diet to control osteoporosis, the use of functional ingredients to improve bone strength, and ways of maintaining dental health. Part 2 discusses how obesity can be controlled, whilst Part 3 looks at gut health and maintaining the immune function using functional ingredients such as probiotics and prebiotics. The final part of the book reviews research on functional foods and cancer with chapters on synbiotics, anti-angiogenic functional foods, glucosinolates, dietary fibre and phytoestrogens.

Functional foods, ageing and degenerative disease will be a standard reference for all those concerned with the role of functional foods in the prevention and control of degenerative disease.

About the editors

Professor Claude Remacle is Head of the Unit of Animal Biology at the internationally-renowned Université Catholique de Louvain, where Dr Brigitte Reusens is a senior scientist. Both are noted for their research in functional foods and degenerative disease.

The contributors

P Berry Ottaway, Berry Ottaway and Associates Ltd, UK
L Kalbe, B Reusens and C Remacle, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Belgium
D Rivera, University of Murcia and C Obon, University Miguel Hernandez, Spain
K D Cashman, University College Cork, Ireland
L Ovesen, Institute of Food Safety and Nutrition, Denmark
S Edelstein, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel
M Edgar, The University of Liverpool, UK
K K Makinen, University of Turku, Finland
C Verdich, Copenhagen University Hospital, Denmark and K Clement, INSERM, France
T I A Sorensen, Copenhagen University Hospital, Denmark and K Clement, INSERM, France
F Foufelle, INSERM, France
P Ferre, INSERM, France
W A M Blom, TNO Nutrition and Food Research, The Netherlands
A Stafleu, TNO Nutrition and Food Research, The Netherlands
C de Graaf, TNO Nutrition and Food Research, The Netherlands
R Tahvonen, University of Turku, Finland
S Salminen, University of Turku, Finland
M Blaut, German Institute of Human Nutrition, Germany
P C Calder, University of Southampton, UK
K M Tuohy, University of Reading, UK
E Liktrafiti, University of Reading, UK
K Manderson, University of Reading, UK
G R Gibson, University of Reading, UK
R A Rastall, University of Reading, UK
L de Vuyst, Vrije University Brussels, Belgium
L Avonts, Vrije University Brussels, Belgium
L Makras, Vrije University Brussels, Belgium
J N Losso, Louisiana State University, USA
R R Bansode, Louisiana State University, USA
M F Bennet, University College Cork, Ireland
Y E Clune, University College Cork, Ireland
F Shanahan, University College Cork, Ireland
G O#Sullivan, University College Cork, Ireland
J K Collins, University College Cork, Ireland
S Knasmuller, University of Vienna, Austria
B J Majer, University of Vienna, Austria
C Buchmann, University of Vienna, Austria
F Kassie, University of Giessen, Germany
S Knasmuller, University of Vienna, Austria
J Slavin, University of Minnesota, USA
E Shimoni, Israel Institute of Technology, Israel
Y Ungar, Israel Institute of Technology, Israel
F Shahidi, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada
C A Northrop-Clewes, University of Ulster, UK
D T Thurnham, University of Ulster, UK
G Rouzaud, The University of Reading, UK


Contents

Introduction

Regulatory context in the EU
P Berry Ottaway, Berry Ottaway and Associates Ltd, UK

Introduction: the EU and food legislation
The regulation of novel foods and novel ingredients in the EU
EU food law and regulation of food health claims
National initiatives to regulate food health claims
Approval and substantiation of health claims
Medicinal products and EU legislation
References

Diet and the prevention of degenerative disease
L Kalbe, B Reusens and C Remacle, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Belgium

Introduction: epidemiological studies and the influence of diet in early life
Foetal and neonatal nutritional requirements
The effects of supplement intake
The role of functional foods: nutrition during pregnancy and infancy
Safety concerns of functional foods
Future trends
Sources of further information and advice
References

New functional foods for age-related diseases
D Rivera, University of Murcia and C Obon, University Miguel Hernandez, Spain

Introduction: the Mediterranean diet and healthy living
Mediterranean foods and their functional properties
The functional properties of Mediterranean herbs, spices and wild greens
Diet and age related diseases
Methods of identifying and analysing plant extracts
Developing supplements for healthy ageing and other future trends
Sources of further information and advice
Acknowledgement
References

PART 1: BONE AND ORAL HEALTH

Diet and the control of osteoporosis
K D Cashman, University College Cork, Ireland

Introduction: definition and epidemiology of osteoporosis
Bone growth and factors affecting bone mass
Dietary strategies for preventing osteoporosis: minerals
Dietary strategies for preventing osteoporosis: vitamins, protein and lipids
Preventing osteoporosis: the impact of genetic variation and diet
Conclusions and future trends
Sources of further information and advice
References

Phytoestrogens and the control of osteoporosis
K D Cashman, University College Cork, Ireland
Introduction
Osteporosis: prevention and treatment
Mechanics of action of phytoestrogens in bone metabolism
Phytoestrogen action on bone cells
Investigating phytoestrogen action on bone: animal and human studies
Conclusions
Sources of further information and advice
References

Vitamin D fortification and bone health
L Ovesen, Institute of Food Safety and Nutrition, Denmark
Introduction
Vitamin D: sources, metabolism, status and deficiency
Vitamin D fortification and osteoporosis
Dietary intake of vitamin D
Strategies to improve vitamin D supply
Food fortification: reducing deficiency diseases
Issues in vitamin D fortification of food
Future trends
Sources of further information
References
Calcium citrate (TCC) and bone health
S Edelstein, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel

Introduction: bone formation and calcium fortification
Calcium citrate (TCC) as a calcium supplement
Measuring the effectiveness of TCC
TCC fortification
Future trends
Sources of further information
References

Diet, functional foods and oral health
M Edgar, The University of Liverpool, UK
Introduction: key dietary factors in oral health
The effects of ageing on oral health
Dietary strategies for oral health
Functional foods for promoting oral health
Future trends
Sources of further information
References

Sweeteners and dental health
K K Makinen, University of Turku, Finland

Introduction: the relationship between dental caries and dietary carbohydrates
Xylitol and the prevention of dental caries
The relationship between sucrose consumption and dental caries
Future trends
References

PART 2: OBESITY

Nutrient-gene interactions in the control of obesity
C Verdich and T I A Sorensen, Copenhagen University Hospital, Denmark and K Clement, INSERM, France

Introduction
Genetic influences on obesity
Nutrient-sensitive genes
Nutrient-gene interaction and the development of obesity.
Managing obesity: dietary and other strategies
Future trends.
Sources of further information
References

Nutrition, fat synthesis and obesity
F Foufelle and P Ferre, INSERM, France
Introduction: fat synthesis and nutrition.
Regulation of glycolytic/lipogenic enzymes
Molecular mechanisms involved in controlling glycolytic/lipogenic genes
Improving lipogenesis using functional foods
Future trends
Sources of further information
References.
Abbreviations

Satiety and the control of obesity
W A M Blom, A Stafleu and C de Graaf, TNO Nutrition and Food Research, The Netherlands
Introduction: satiety and obesity
Factors influencing satiety and satiation
The impact of different food components on satiety
Developing biomarkers of satiety
Future trends: using biomarkers to assess weight-control foods
Sources of further information and advice
References.

PART 3: GUT HEALTH AND IMMUNE FUNCTION

Functional foods for gut health: an overview
R Tahvonen and S Salminen, University of Turku, Finland

Introduction: the human gut
The structure of the gut and its immune system
Nutrients and gut function
Nutrients and the gut immune system
Nutrition and gut health
The role of functional foods in promoting gut health
Future trends
Sources of further information
References

Analysing gut microflora
M Blaut, German Institute of Human Nutrition, Germany
Introduction. Molecular based methods for identifying gut micro-organisms
Methods of characterising human gut microbiota
Using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) for characterising microbiota
Future trends
Sources of further information and advice
References

Dietary lipids and immune function
P C Calder, University of Southampton, UK
Introduction: the immune system in health, disease and ageing
Dietary fatty acids: nomenclature, sources and intakes
Fatty acid composition of immune cells and the immune function: eicosanoids
Dietary fatty acids and immune function: mechanisms of action
Other mechanisms of action of dietary fatty acids not involving eicosanoids
Dietary fatty acids and inflammatory diseases
Targeting the immune function and inflammation: fatty acid-enriched functional foods
Conclusions
References

Improving gut health in the elderly
K M Tuohy, E Liktrafiti, K Manderson, G R Gibson and R A Rastall, University of Reading, UK
Introduction
Successional development of gastrointestinal microflora
Modification of the gut microflora: probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics
Factors affecting gut microflora in old age
Immunosenescence and susceptibility to colon cancer in old age
Future trends
Conclusion
References

Probiotics, prebiotics and gut health
L de Vuyst, L Avonts and L Makras, Vrije University Brussels, Belgium
Introduction: defining probiotics and prebiotics
Types of probiotics and prebiotics and their influence on gut health
Investigating the effectiveness of probiotics and prebiotics: the case of antimicrobial function
Improving the effectiveness of probiotics and prebiotics in optimising gut health
Future trends
Sources of further information and advice
Acknowledgements
References

PART 4: CANCER

Anti-angiogenic functional foods, degenerative disease and cancer
J N Losso and R R Bansode, Louisiana State University, USA

Introduction: mechanisms of degenerative disease
Genetic/endogenous risk factors
Environmental/exogenous risk factors
Angiogenesis, body function and degenerative disease
Anti-angiogenic functional food compounds. Conclusion
Future trends
Sources of further information and advice
References

Synbiotics and the prevention of cancer
M F Bennet, Y E Clune, F Shanahan, G O#Sullivan and J K Collins, University College Cork, Ireland
Introduction: probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics
Gut microflora
Colon cancer: types, occurrence and causes
Diet and other measures for preventing colon cancer
Screening of colorectal cancers
Diagnosis and treatment of colorectal cancers
Pre- pro- and synbiotic influences on colon carcinogenesis
Predicting tumour formation: biomarkers
Future trends
References

Identifying antimutagenic constituents of food
S Knasmuller, B J Majer and C Buchmann, University of Vienna, Austria
Introduction
Methods for identifying antimutagenic constituents in foods
Limitations of methods for identifying antimutagenic compounds
Future trends
Sources of further information and advice
References

Glucosinolates and the prevention of cancer
F Kassie, University of Giessen, Germany and S Knasmuller, University of Vienna, Austria
Introduction
The role of glucosinolates in the prevention of cancer
Mechanisms of action
Future trends
Sources of further information and advice
References

Dietary fibre and the prevention of cancer
J Slavin, University of Minnesota, USA
The relationship between dietary fibre intake and cancers of the gastrointestinal tract
Epidemiological evidence on the protective role of dietary fibre
Dietary fibre and hormonally-related cancers
Clinical studies of the protective role of dietary fibre
The relationship between dietary fibre intake and different cancers
Conclusions
References

Phytoestrogens and the prevention of cancer
E Shimoni and Y Ungar, Israel Institute of Technology, Israel
Introduction
Phytoestrogens in food: the effects of food processing and storage
The role of phytoestrogens in the prevention of different cancers
Mechanisms of action of phytoestrogens
Future trends
References

Food phenolics and cancer chemoprevention
F Shahidi, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada
Introduction
Functional properties of plant phenolics and polyphenolics
The role of phenolic compounds in the prevention of cancer
Future trends
Sources of further information and advice
References

Vitamins
C A Northrop-Clewes and D T Thurnham, University of Ulster, UK
Introduction
The role of vitamins in the prevention of cancer
Future trends
Sources of further information and advic
References

Probiotics in inflammatory bowel disease
C A Northrop-Clewes and D T Thurnham, University of Ulster, UK
Introduction
Managing inflammatory bowel disease: the role of probiotics
Analysing the effectiveness of probiotics in inflammatory bowel disease
Future trends
Sources of further information
References

Assessing the effectiveness of probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics in preventing diseases
G Rouzaud, The University of Reading, UK
Introduction: diet and gastrointestinal diseases
Definition of probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics
Safety issues in the use of probiotics and prebiotics
Methods for determining mode of action and effectiveness
Evidence for the effects of pro, pre and synbiotics on acute and chronic diseases
Sources of further information and advice
Conclusion
References

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Autumn 2004 : Woodhead Publishing Ltd : disease control : food ingredients : food science : health & beauty : nutraceuticals : nutrition, human : vitamins

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