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Improving the thermal processing of foods

Edited by P Richardson 
Woodhead Publishing  2004  



Hardback  520 pages  ISBN 9781855737303      £175.00
The application of heat is both an important method of preserving foods and a means of developing texture, flavour and colour. It has long been recognised that thermal technologies must ensure the safety of food without compromising food quality. Improving the thermal processing of foods summarises key research both on improving particular thermal processing techniques and measuring their effectiveness.

Part 1 examines how best to optimise thermal processes, with chapters addressing safety and quality, efficiency and productivity and the application of computational fluid dynamics. Part 2 focuses on developments in technologies for sterilisation and pasteurisation with chapters on modelling retort temperature control and developments in packaging, sous-vide and cook-chill processing. There are chapters covering continuous heat processing, including developments in tubular heat exchangers, aseptic processing and ohmic and air impingement heating. The fourth part considers the validation of thermal processes, modelling heat penetration curves, using data loggers and time-temperature integrators and other new measuring techniques. The final group of chapters detail methods of analysing microbial inactivation in thermal processing and identifying and dealing with heat-resistant bacteria.

Improving the thermal processing of foods will be a standard reference book for those working in the food processing industry.

About the editors

Professor Philip Richardson is Head of the Food Manufacturing Technologies Department at the internationally renowned Campden and Chorleywood Food Research Association, UK and visiting Professor in Chemical Engineering at Queen#s University, Belfast.

The contributors

S D Holdsworth, formerly Campden and Chorleywood Food Research Association, UK
J C Oliveira, University College Cork, Ireland
R Simpson, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Chile
P Verboven, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium
J de Baerdemaeker, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium
B M Nicolai, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium
G Bown, Alcan Packaging, UK
N May, Campden and Chorleywood Food Research Association, UK
S Ghazala, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada
K P Sandeepl, North Carolina State University, USA
J Simunovicl, North Carolina State University, USA
K R Swartzel, North Carolina State University, USA
G S Tucker, Campden and Chorleywood Food Research Association, UK
U Bolmstedt, Tetra Pak Processing Components AB, Sweden
L Wang, Lund Institute of Technology, Sweden
B Sunden, Lund Institute of Technology, Sweden
R Ruan, University of Minnesota, USA
X Ye, University of Minnesota, USA
P Chen, University of Minnesota, USA
C Doona, US Army Natick Soldier System Cente, USA
T Yang, US Army Natick Soldier System Cente, USA
A Singh, University of California # Davis, USA
R P Singh, University of California # Davis, USA
K Warriner, University of Guelph, Canada
S Movahedi, University of Nottingham, UK
W M Waites, University of Nottingham, UK
F Eszes, University of Szeged, Hungary
R Rajko, University of Szeged, Hungary
G Shaw, Campden and Chorleywood Food Research Association, UK
A Van Loey, Katholeike Universitat Leuven, The Netherlands
Y Guiavarc#h, Katholeike Universitat Leuven, The Netherlands
W Claeys, Katholeike Universitat Leuven, The Netherlands
M Hendrickx, Katholeike Universitat Leuven, The Netherlands
K P Nott, University of Cambridge, UK
L D Hall, University of Cambridge, UK
M Peleg, University of Massachusetts at Amherst, USA
A H Geeraerd, Katholeike Universitat Leuven, Belgium
V P Valdramidis, Katholeike Universitat Leuven, Belgium
K Bernaerts, Katholeike Universitat Leuven, Belgium
J F Van Impe, Katholeike Universitat Leuven, Belgium
J T Rosnes, Norconserv, Norway


Contents

PART 1: OPTIMISING THERMAL PROCESSES

Optimising the safety and quality of thermally-processed packaged foods
S D Holdsworth, formerly Campden and Chorleywood Food Research Association, UK

Introduction: reconciling safety and quality
The kinetics of microbial inactivation during heat treatment
Setting safe limits for sterilisation and pasteurisation processes
Setting thermal process parameters to maximise product quality: C-values
Optimising thermal process conditions for product safety and quality
Future trends
Sources of further information and advice
References

Optimising the efficiency and productivity of thermal processing
J C Oliveira, University College Cork, Ireland
Introduction: the role of thermal processing in extending shelf-life
Setting commercial objectives for thermal processes: process optimisation
Assessing the potential of in-container, aseptic and HTST processing
Techniques for optimising the efficiency of thermal processes
Future trends
References

Optimising the efficiency of batch processing with retort systems in thermal processing
R Simpson, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Chile
Introduction: batch processing in food canning plants
Criteria for optimal design and operation of batch processing
Optimising energy consumption
Optimising retort scheduling
Maximising net present value of capital investment for batch processing
Simultaneous processing of different product lots in the same retort
Conclusion
References
List of symbols

Using computational fluid dynamics to optimise thermal processes
P Verboven, J de Baerdemaeker and B M Nicolai, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium
Introduction: computational fluid dynamics and the importance of fluid flow in thermal processes
Measurement and simulation of fluid flow in thermal processes
Using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to analyse thermal processes
Improving thermal food processes by CFD: packaged foods, heat exchangers and ovens
Future trends
Sources of further information and advice
References

PART 2: DEVELOPMENTS IN TECHNOLOGIES FOR STERILISATION AND PASTEURISATION

Modelling and optimising retort temperature control
G Bown, Alcan Packaging, UK

Introduction
Factors affecting thermal process control
Modelling techniques for predicting lethal heat
On-line process control of retort temperature
Achieving lethality using the pre-heating and cooling phases of the retort cycle
Future trends
Sources of further information and advice
Glossary of terms
References

Improving rotary thermal processing
G Tucker, Campden and Chorleywood Food Research Association, UK
Introduction: the use of rotation for batch thermal processing
The effectiveness of rotation in improving heat transfer
Optimising mixing during rotation to improve heating rates
Testing changes in rotation rate to improve heat transfer
Optimising rotation speeds in thermal processing
Future trends
Sources of further information and advice
References

Developments in packaging formats for retort processing
N May, Campden and Chorleywood Food Research Association, UK
Introduction: requirements for low- and high-acid foods
Developments in packaging formats: the metal can
Developments in packaging formats: the plastic can, pot and bottle
Retort pouches: construction, sealing, processing and packaging
Methods of improving glass packaging
Future trends
Sources of further information and advice
References

Developments in cook-chill and sous-vide processing
S Ghazala, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada
Introduction: sous-vide, cook-chill and home-meal-replacement technologies
The pasteurization process
Cook-chill systems: process stages
The sous-vide system: process stages
Advantages and disadvantages of cook-chill and sous-vide systems
Requirements for cook-chill and sous-vide processes
Microbial safety and barrier technology for cook-chill and sous-vide processing
Good manufacturing practices and HACCP planning for safe cook-chill and sous-vide processing
Conclusions
References

PART 3: DEVELOPMENTS IN CONTINUOUS HEAT PROCESSING

Developments in aseptic processing
K P Sandeep, J Simunovic and K R Swartzel, North Carolina State University, USA

Introduction: key issues in aseptic processing
Components of an aseptic processing system
Equipment sterilisation and process validation
Recent developments in aseptic processing
Future trends
Abbreviations
References

Developments in tubular heat exchangers
G S Tucker, Campden and Chorleywood Food Research Association, UK and U Bolmstedt, Tetra Pak Processing Components AB, Sweden
Introduction: applications of traditional tubular heat exchangers
Improving exchanger design: product flow behaviour
Selecting the right type of tubular heat exchanger
Heat transfer efficiency in tubular heat exchangers
Emerging designs and future trends
Sources of further information and advice
References

Optimising plate heat exchanger design and operation
L Wang and B Sunden, Lund Institute of Technology, Sweden
Introduction: plate heat exchangers (PHEs)
Types of plate heat exchangers
Application of plate heat exchangers in food processing: pasteurisation and evaporation
Improving the design of plate heat exchangers: modelling pressure and heat transfer
Future trends
Conclusions
Sources of further information and advice
List of symbols
References

Developments in ohmic heating
R Ruan, X Ye and P Chen, University of Minnesota and C Doona and T Yang, US Army Natick Soldier System Cente, USA
Introduction: ohmic heating principles and technology
Ohmic heating engineering: design and process control
Invasive and non-invasive methods of monitoring ohmic heating
Modelling ohmic heating
Future trends
Sources of further information
References

Air impingement heating
A Singh and R P Singh, University of California # Davis, USA
Introduction: air impingement processing
The principles of air impingement processing of food products
Heat transfer measurements and characteristics in impingement systems
Design and use of air impingement systems in the food industry
Modelling and optimising air impingement systems
Future trends
List of symbols
References

Laser-based packaging sterilisation in aseptic processing
K Warriner, University of Guelph, Canada and S Movahedi and W M Waites, University of Nottingham, UK
Introduction: limitations in current sterilisation methods for aseptic carton packaging
The principles of laser operation
Assessing and validating spore inactivation by UV light
Application of UV laser light in package sterilisation
Optimising UV-laser sterilisation of cartons: optical and other novel systems
Future trends
Sources of further information and advice
References

PART 4: IMPROVING VALIDATION OF THERMAL PROCESSES

Modelling heat penetration curves in thermal processes
F Eszes and R Rajko, University of Szeged, Hungary

Introduction: assessing boundary conditions for heat treatment
Determining thermal diffusivity
Determining surface heat transfer coefficients
Increasing the accuracy of heat treatment penetration curves
Future trends
Acknowledgement
References

Validation of heat processes: an overview
G S Tucker, Campden and Chorleywood Research Association, UK
Introduction: the need for better measurement and control
Validation methods: objectives and principles
Validation based on temperature measurement
Validation based on microbiological methods
Validation based on biochemical time-temperature integrators
Future trends
Sources of further information and advice
References

The use of data loggers to validate thermal processes
G Shaw, Campden and Chorleywood Food Research Association, UK
Introduction: the role of data loggers in validating thermal processes
Types of data loggers
Using data loggers to measure thermal processes
Using data loggers to validate thermal processes
Future trends
References

The use of time-temperature integrators to validate thermal processes
A Van Loey, Y Guiavarch, W Claeys and M Hendrickx, Katholeike Universitat Leuven, The Netherlands
Introduction: the importance of time-temperature integrators (TTIs)
The principles of time-temperature integrators
Application of time-temperature integrators to measure thermal processes
Strengths and weaknesses of time-temperature integrators
Future trends
Sources of further information and advice
References

New techniques for measuring and validating thermal processes
K P Nott and L D Hall, University of Cambridge, UK
Introduction: limitations of current temperature measurement
Minimal and non-invasive measurement techniques
Magnetic resonance imaging: principles, measurements and processing
Future trends
Sources of further information and advice
References

PART 5: ANALYSING MICROBIAL INACTIVATION IN THERMAL PROCESSING

Analysing the effectiveness of microbial inactivation in thermal processing
M Peleg, University of Massachusetts at Amherst, USA

Introduction: microbial heat inactivation
Survival curves, the Weibull distribution function and heat resistance
Analysing the survival ratio dependence on temperature
Simulating heating and cooling curves
Applications of survival patterns in food processing
Conclusion
References

Evaluating microbial inactivation models for thermal processing
A H Geeraerd, V P Valdramidis, K Bernaerts and J F Van Impe, Katholeike Universitat Leuven, Belgium
Introduction
Description of primary models of inactivation
Dynamic inactivation models
Static inactivation models
Description of secondary models of inactivation
Modelling the interaction between micro-organisms, food and heat treatment
Future trends
Acknowledgements
References

Identifying and dealing with heat-resistant bacteria
J T Rosnes, Norconserv, Norway
Introduction: the problem of heat-resistant bacteria
Heat-resistant bacteria and their growth potential
Types of heat-resistant microorganisms
The thermal inactivation kinetics of bacterial spores
New thermal inactivation processes: microwaves, radio frequency and high pressure processing
Identifying heat-resistant bacteria
Sources of further information and advice
References

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Autumn 2004 : Woodhead Publishing Ltd : dairy products : food & beverage products : food safety : food science : microbiology : modelling, computer & mathematical : process engineering

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