Brewing: Science and practice

Edited by D E Briggs, P A Brookes, R Stevens and C A Boulton 
Woodhead Publishing  September 2004  

Hardback  888 pages  ISBN 9781855734906      £225.00

Brewing is one of the oldest and most complex technologies in food and beverage processing. Its success depends on blending a sound understanding of the science involved with an equally clear grasp of the practicalities of production. Brewing: science and practice provides a comprehensive and authoritative guide to both of these aspects of the subject.

After an initial overview of the brewing process, malts, adjuncts and enzymes are reviewed. A chapter is then devoted to water, effluents and wastes. There follows a group of chapters on the science and technology of mashing, including grist preparation. The next two chapters discuss hops, and are followed by chapters on wort boiling, clarification and aeration. Three chapters are devoted to the important topics of yeast biology, metabolism and growth. Fermentation, fermentation technologies and beer maturation are then reviewed, followed by a consideration of native African beers. After a discussion of brewhouses, the authors consider a number of safety and quality issues, including beer microbiology and the chemical and physical properties of beer, which contribute to qualities such as flavour. A final group of chapters cover packaging, storage, distribution and the retail handling of beer.

Based on the authors' unrivalled experience in the field, Brewing: science and practice will be a standard work for the industry.

About the editors

Dennis Briggs was formerly Senior Lecturer in the British School of Malting and Brewing in the University of Birmingham. With Jim (J.S.) Hough and Roger Stevens, he wrote Malting and brewing science (1971; and a second edition with Tom (T.W.) Young in 1980/1981). Other publications include Barley (1978) and Malts and malting (1998).

Chris Boulton is currently at the Coors Brewers Technical Centre at Burton-on-Trent. He is the co-author, with David Quain, of Brewing yeast and fermentation (2001).

Peter Brooke spent over 30 years with Allied Breweries and Carlsberg Tetley, including 6 years as Director of Tetley's Leeds Brewery. He was also President of the Institute of Brewing from 1997 to 1999.

Roger Steven was formerly Senior Lecturer in Pharmaceutical Chemistry at Sunderland Polytechnic. As well as being a co-author of Malting and brewing science, he has edited the Institute of Brewing's monograph on Hops and the Flavour and fragrance journal.


An outline of brewing

Mash tun adjuncts
Brewing liquor
Milling and mashing in
Mashing and wort separation systems
The hop boil and copper adjuncts
Wort clarification, cooling and aeration
The processing of beer
Types of beer
Analytical systems
The economics of brewing

Malts, adjuncts and supplementary enzymes
Grists and other sources of extract
Malting in outline, changes occurring in malting grain, malting technology, malt analyses, types of kilned malt, special malts, malt specifications
Adjuncts; mash tun adjuncts, copper adjuncts
priming sugars, caramels, malt colourants and 'farbebier'
Supplementary enzymes

Water, effluents and wastes
Introduction. Sources of water
Preliminary water treatments
Secondary water treatments
Grades of water used in breweries
The effects on ions on the brewing process
Brewery effluents, wastes and by-products, The characterization of waste water, the characterization of waste water, the characteristics of some brewery wastes and by-products
The disposal of brewery effluents; preliminary treatments, aerobic treatments of brewery effluents, sludge treatments and disposal, anaerobic and mixed treatments of brewery effluents
Other water treatments

The science of mashing
Mashing schedules
Altering mashing conditions; the grist, malts in mashing, mashing with adjuncts, mashing temperatures and wort quality, non-malt enzymes in mashing, mashing liquor and mash ph, mash thickness, extract yield and wort quality, wort
separation and sparging
Mashing biochemistry; wort carbohydrates, starch degradation in mashing, non-starch polysaccharides in mashing, proteins, peptides and amino acids, nucleic acids and related substances, miscellaneous substances containing nitrogen,
vitamins and yeast growth factors, lipid in mashing, phenols, miscellaneous acids, inorganic ions in sweet
Mashing and beer flavour
Spent grains

The preparation of grists
Intake, handling and storage of raw materials
The principles of milling
Laboratory mills
Dry roller milling
Impact mills
Conditioned dry milling
Spray steep roller milling
Spray conditioning
Milling under water
Grist cases

Mashing technology
Mashing in
The mash tun; construction, mash tun operations
Mashing vessels for decoction, double mashing and temperature programmed mashing systems; decoction and double mashing, temperature programmed infusion mashing
Lauter tuns
The strainmaster
Mash filters
The choice of mashing and wort separation systems
Other methods of wort separation and mashing
Spent grains
Theory of wort separation

Hop Products; hop pellets, hop extracts, hop oils
Pests and diseases; damson-hop aphid,(red) spider mite, other pests, downy mildew, powdery mildew, verticillium wilt, virus diseases
Hop varieties

The chemistry of hop constituents
Hop resins; introduction, biosynthesis of the hop resins, analysis of the hop resins, Isomerization of the -acids, hard resins and prenylflavonoids, oxidation of the hop resins
Hop oil; introduction, hydrocarbons, oxygen-containing compounds, sulphur-containing compounds, most potent odourants, hop oil constituents in beer, post fermentation aroma products
Hop Polyphenols (tannins)
Chemical Identification of hop cultivars

Chemistry of wort boiling
Nitrogenous constituents; introduction, Proteins
Carbohydrate-nitrogenous constituent interactions; melanoidins, caramel
Protein-polyphenol (tannin) interactions
Copper finings and trub formation

Wort boiling, clarification, cooling and aeration
The principles of heating wort
Types of coppers
The addition of hops
Pressurized hop boiling systems; low pressure boiling, dynamic low pressure boiling, Continuous high pressure boiling
The control of volatile substances in wort
Energy conservation and the hop boil
Hot wort clarification
Wort cooling
The cold break
Wort aeration / oxygenation

Yeast biology
Historical note
Yeast ecology
Cellular composition
Yeast morphology
Yeast cytology; cell wall; flocculation, the periplasm, the plasma membrane, the cytoplasm, vacuoles and intracellular membrane systems, mitochondria, the nucleus
Yeast cell cycle; yeast sexual cycle.
Yeast genetics; methods of genetic analysis, yeast genome
Strain improvement

Yeast metabolism of wort by yeast
Yeast metabolism - an overview
Yeast nutrition; water relations, sources of carbon, sources of nitrogen, sources of minerals, growth factors
Nutrient uptake; sugar uptake, uptake of nitrogenous nutrients, uptake of lipids, ion uptake, transport of the products of fermentation
Sugar metabolism; glycolysis, hexose monophosphate pathway, tricarboxylic acid cycle, electron transport and oxidative phosporylation, fermentative sugar catabolism, gluconeogenesis and the glyoxylate cycle, storage carbohydrates,
regulation of sugar metabolism, ethanol toxicity and tolerance
The role of oxygen
Lipid metabolism; fatty acid metabolism, phospholipids, sterols
Nitrogen metabolism
Yeast stress response
Minor products of metabolism contributing to beer flavour; organic and fatty acids, carbonyl compounds, higher alcohols, esters, sulphur-containing compounds

Yeast growth
Measurement of yeast biomass
Batch culture; brewery batch cultures, effect of process variables on fermentation performance
Yeast ageing
Yeast propagation; maintenance and supply of yeast cultures, laboratory yeast propagation, brewery propagation
Fed-batch cultures
Continuous culture
Immobilised yeast
Growth on solid media
Yeast identification; microbiological tests, biochemical tests, tests based on cell surface properties, non-traditional methods
Measurement of viability
Assessment of yeast physiological state

Fermentation technologies
Basic principles of fermentation technology; fermentability of wort, time course of fermentation, heat output in fermentation
Bottom fermentation systems; choice, size and shape of vessels, construction of cylindro-conical vessels; metals and design, cooling jackets, vessel fittings, insulation
Operation of cylindro-conical vessels, addition of yeast (pitching), temperature control, cleaning of vessels
Top fermentation systems; traditional top fermentation systems; vessels and rooms, operation
Yorkshire square fermentation; vessels, operation, new developments
Burton Union fermentation
Continuous fermentation; early systems of continuous fermentation; stirred tank fermenters, tower fermenters
The New Zealand system, continuous primary fermentation with immobilised yeast; technology, operation, future
Fermentation control systems; specific gravity changes, other methods

Beer maturation and treatments
Maturation-flavour and aroma change; principles of secondary fermentation, important flavour changes; diketones, sulphur compounds, aldehydes, volatile fatty acids
Techniques of maturation; lager methods, ale methods, oxygen control
Flavour, aroma and colour adjustments by addition; colour, flavour, aroma, blending, water
Maturation vessels; material of construction, cooling, cleaning-in-place (CIP)
Stabilization against non-biological haze; mechanisms for haze formation
Removal of protein; hydrolysis, precipitation, adsorption
Removal of polyphenol; adsorption, proanthocyanidin-free malt
Combined treatments to remove protein and polyphenol
Hazes from other than protein or polyphenol
Carbonation; carbon dioxide saturation, artificial carbonation, carbon dioxide recovery
Clarification and filtration; removal of yeast and beer recovery; sedimentation and fining, centrifugation, filtration. Beer filtration; sheet filtration, powder filtration
Special beer treatments; low alcohol and alcohol free beers; vacuum distillation, vacuum evaporation, dialysis, reverse osmosis, control of mashing, control of fermentation, use of spent grains
Ice beers, diet beers

Native African beers
Introduction; an outline of the stages of production, bouza, merissa, busaa some other beers, southern African beers
Malting sorghum & millets
Brewing African beers on the industrial scale
Attempts to obtain stable African beers
Beer composition and its nutritional value

The microbiological threat to the brewing process
Beer spoilage microorganisms; detection of brewery microbial contaminants, identification of brewery bacteria, gram negative beer spoiling bacteria, gram positive beer spoiling bacteria, beer spoilage yeast, microbiological media and the cultivation of microorganisms
Microbiological quality assurance
Sampling; sampling devices
Disinfection of pitching yeast
Cleaning in the brewery; range of cleaning operations, CIP systems, cleaning agents, cleaning beer dispense lines, validation of CIP

Brewhouses: types, control and economy
History of brewhouse development; the tower brewery lay-out, the horizontal brewery lay-out
Types of modern brewhouse; experimental brewhouses, micro and pub breweries
Control of brewhouse operations; automation in the brewhouse; sensors, programmable logic controllers (PLCs), supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems
Scheduling of brewhouse operations
Economic aspects of brewhouses

Chemical and physical properties of beer
Chemical composition of beer; inorganic constituents, alcohol and original extract, carbohydrates, other constituents containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen; non-volatile, volatile, other constituents containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen; non-volatile, Volatile
Nitrogenous constituents; non-volatile and volatile
Sulphur-containing constituents
Nutritive value of beer
Colour of beer
Haze; measurement of haze, composition and formation of haze, prediction of haze and beer stability, practical methods for improving beer stability
Foam characteristics and head retention; methods of assessing foam characteristics, beer components influencing head retention, head retention and the brewing process

Beer flavour and sensory assessment
Flavour # taste and odour
Flavour stability
Sensory analysis

General overview of packaging operations
Bottling; managing the bottle flow; depalletising and palletising, de-crating and crating, secondary packaging, washing, rinsing, empty bottle inspection, full bottle inspection, labelling
Sterile filtration, standard filling, aseptic filling, crowning, tunnel pasteurisation
Managing plant cleaning
Materials for making bottles
Canning; the beer can, preparing cans at the brewery for filling, can filling, can closing (seaming), widgets in cans
Kegging; the keg, treatment of beer for kegging; flash pasteurisation, handling of kegs, keg internal cleaning and filling, keg capping and labelling, smooth flow ale in kegs
Cask beer; the cask, handling casks, preparing beer for cask filling, cask filling

Storage and distribution
Warehousing; principles of warehouse operation; stock control, storage conditions, record keeping
Safety in the warehouse
Distribution; logistics; planning, delivery, quality assurance

Beer in the trade
Beer cellars; hygiene, temperature, lighting
Beer dispense; keg beer; carbon dioxide, mixed gases, beer pumps, beer lines
Cask beer; delivery of beer, stillaging, pegging (spiling), tapping, tilting, dispense, hygiene, empty casks, throughput
Bottled and canned beer
Quality control
New developments in trade quality


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