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Texture in food Volume 2: Solid foods

Edited by D Kilcast 
Woodhead Publishing  2004  



Hardback  560 pages  ISBN 9781855737242      £175.00
Texture is one of the most important attributes used by consumers to assess food quality. With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, this authoritative book summarises the wealth of recent research on what influences texture in solid foods and how it can be controlled to maximise product

The first part of the book reviews research on understanding how consumers experience texture when they eat, and how they perceive and describe key textural qualities such as crispness. Part 2 considers the instrumental techniques used for analysing texture. It includes chapters on force/deformation and sound input techniques, near infrared spectroscopy (NIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The final part examines how the texture of particular foods may be better understood and improved. A number of chapters review ways of controlling the texture of fruits and vegetables, including the role of plant structure and compounds, the handling of raw materials and technologies such as freezing and vacuum infusion. A final group of chapters discuss the texture of cereal foods, including bread, rice, pasta and fried food.

Texture in food Volume 2: Solid foods will be a standard reference for the food industry. It is accompanied by a companion volume on the texture of semi-solid foods.

About the editors

Dr David Kilcast is Head of Sensory and Consumer Sciences at Leatherhead Food International. He is also past Chair of the Sensory and Consumer Science Group of the Society of Chemical Industry, a member of the Professional Food Sensory Group Committee of the Institute of Food Science and Technology and a member of the British Standards Institute Committee on Sensory Analysis.

The contributors

D McClements, University of Massachusetts, USA
J-F Meullenet, University of Arkansas, USA
A C Smith, Institute of Food Research, UK
P Mallikarjunan, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, USA
R Lu, Agricultural Research Service, USA
J A Abbott, Agricultural Research Service, USA
L M Duizer, Massey University, New Zealand
S Millar, Campden and Chorleywood Food Research Association, UK
A K Thybo, Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences
A H Karlsson, Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences
H C Bertram, Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences
H J Andersen, Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences
P Szczypinski, Technical University of Lodz, Poland
S Donstrup, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark
L M M Tijskens, Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Netherlands
H Luyten, Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Netherlands
K W Waldron, Institute of Food Research, UK
T Kojima, Saga University, Japan
S Fujita, Saga University, Japan
M Tanaka, Saga University, Japan
P Sirisomboon, King Mongkut#s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Thailand
H J Wichers, Agrotechnological Research Institute, The Netherlands
C Boeriu, Agrotechnological Research Institute, The Netherlands
G Tucker, University of Nottingham, UK
J B Adams, CCFRA, UK
R Saurel, University of Lyon, France
M Suutarinen, VTT Biotechnology, Finland
K Autio, VTT Biotechnology, Finland
I Mafra, University of Aveiro, Portugal
M A Coimbra, University of Aveiro, Portugal
S P Cauvain, CCFRA, UK
S K Kim, Dankook University, Korea
C O Rhee, Chonnam National University, Korea
B A Marchylo, Canadian Grain Commission
J E Dexter, Canadian Grain Commission
L J Malcolmson, Canadian Grain Commission
C-J Shieh, Da-Yeh University, Taiwan
C-Y Chang, Da-Yeh University, Taiwan
C-S Chen, Chao-Yang University of Technology, Taiwan


Contents

Introduction

Part 1: Consumers, texture and food quality

Chapter 1: Measuring consumer perceptions of texture: an overview
D Kilcast, Leatherhead Food International, UK

Introduction: texture and food quality
Perception and sensory assessment of food texture
Tests and test procedures
Instrumental measurement of texture
In vivo texture measurement
Future developments
Conclusions
References

Chapter 2: Consumers and texture: understanding their perceptions and preferences
J-F Meullenet, University of Arkansas, USA
Introduction: problems with consumer descriptions of texture
Investigating consumer descriptions of texture
Tests and test procedures
Understanding consumer preferences
Challenges to understanding consumer preferences
Future trends
Conclusions
References

Chapter 3: Texture and mastication
A C Smith, Institute of Food Research, UK
Introduction: mastication and texture
The mastication process
Measuring mastication
Chewing, swallowing, salivation and bolus formation
Mastication and particular foods
Future trends
Sources of further information
Acknowledgement
References

Chapter 4: Understanding and measuring consumer perceptions of crispness
P Mallikarjunan, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, USA
Introduction
Characterisation and determination of crispness
Methods of data correlation, evaluation and analysis
Case study: breaded chicken nuggets
Future trends
References
Part 2 Instrumental techniques for analysing texture

Chapter 5: Force/deformation techniques for measuring texture
R Lu and J A Abbott, Agricultural Research Service, USA

Introduction
Structural and mechanical characterisation of solid foods
Destructive measurements
Non-destructive measurements
Conclusions
References

Chapter 6: Sound input techniques for measuring texture
L M Duizer, Massey University, New Zealand
Introduction
Sound and its detection
Destructive testing
Non-destructive testing
Application of sound measurement techniques
Future trends
Sources of further information and advice
References
Chapter 7: Near infrared (NIR) diffuse reflectance in texture measurement
S Millar, Campden and Chorleywood Food Research Association, UK

Introduction: spectroscopy and NIR
Application of NIR to cereals and their products
Application of NIR to fruit and vegetables
Application of NIR to meat
Application of NIR to other foods
Conclusions and future trends
Sources of further information
References

Chapter 8: Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in texture measurement
A K Thybo, A H Karlsson, H C Bertram and H J Andersen, Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences, P Szczypinski, Technical University of Lodz, Poland and S Donstrup, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark
Introduction
Methods and analysis
Application of NMR: texture determination of solid foods
Application of MRI: texture determination of solid foods
Future trends
References

Chapter 9: Modelling food texture
L M M Tijskens and H Luyten, Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Netherlands
Introduction
Role of modelling in texture analysis
Factors affecting texture
Effects of enzymes on texture
Applying models to predict texture
Future trends
References
Part 3 Understanding and improving the texture of particular foods

Chapter 10: Plant structure, fruit and vegetable texture
K W Waldron, Institute of Food Research, UK

Introduction
Measurement of texture
Plant structure
Cellular basis of crispness, juiciness and mealiness in fruit tissue
Cellular stability during processing
Improving cell adhesion
Future trends
Acknowledgements
References

Chapter 11: Plant compounds and fruit texture: the case of pear
T Kojima, S Fujita and M Tanaka, Saga University, Japan and P Sirisomboon, King Mongkut#s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Thailand
Introduction: variations in pear texture
Measuring and modelling fruit firmness
Chemical compounds affecting firmness: the example of Japanese pear
The effect of cultivation and storage on fruit texture
Use of near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) to evaluate textural properties
Future trends
Sources of further information and advice
Acknowledgement
References

Chapter 12: Controlling the texture of fruit and vegetables: the role of oxidising enzymes
H J Wichers and C Boeriu, Agrotechnological Research Institute, The Netherlands
Introduction: distribution of polyphenoloxidases (PPOs) and peroxidases (PODs) in plants and plant cells
Biochemical and physiological role of PPOs and PODs
PPOs and PODs: structure and mechanisms of action
PPOs, PODs and texture development
Controlling PPO and POD activity
PPOs and PODs: implications for food texture.
Future trends
Sources of further information
References

Chapter 13: Improving fruit and vegetable texture by genetic transformation
G Tucker, University of Nottingham, UK
Introduction
Tools of genetic modification
Approaches to the manipulation of texture: the tomato
Other approaches to the manipulation of texture
Future trends
References

Chapter 14: Raw material quality and the texture of processed vegetables
J B Adams, CCFRA, UK
Introduction
Vegetable texture determined by starch
Vegetable texture determined by cell wall polysaccharides
Vegetable texture affected by phenolic reactions
Future trends
Sources of further information and advice
References.

Chapter 15: Improving the texture of processed vegetables by vacuum infusion
R Saurel, University of Lyon, France
Introduction
Vacuum infusion technology
Applications to improve texture
Future trends
Sources of further information and advice
References

Chapter 16: Improving the texture of frozen fruit: the case of berries
M Suutarinen and K Autio, VTT Biotechnology, Finland
Introduction: the effects of freezing and thawing on berry texture
Maintaining texture: conventional pre-freezing treatments
Maintaining texture: alternative pre-freezing treatments
Application: frozen berries and jams
Future trends
References

Chapter 17: Improving the texture of processed fruit: the case of olives
I Mafra and M A Coimbra, University of Aveiro, Portugal
Introduction: the texture of table olives
Factors affecting the texture quality of raw olives
Influence of processing on table olives
Improving texture
Future trends
Sources of further information and advice
References

Chapter 18: Improving the texture of bread
S P Cauvain, CCFRA, UK
Introduction
Textural characteristics of bread and other cereal-based foods
Definitions of texture
Measuring texture
Influence of processing and storage
Improving texture
Future trends
Sources of further information and advice
References.

Chapter 19: Analysing and improving the texture of cooked rice
S K Kim, Dankook University and C O Rhee, Chonnam National University, Korea
Introduction
Criteria for evaluating rice quality
Hydration of rice
Factors affecting cooking quality
Testing texture quality
Problems and challenges
Sources of further information and advice
References.

Chapter 20: Improving the texture of pasta
B A Marchylo, J E Dexter and L J Malcolmson, Canadian Grain Commission
Introduction
Measuring the texture of cooked pasta
Influence of raw materials
Influence of processing
Trends in consumer preference
References

Chapter 21: Improving the texture of fried food
C-J Shieh and C-Y Chang, Da-Yeh University and C-S Chen, Chao-Yang University of Technology, Taiwan
Introduction
Measuring texture
Factors influencing texture
The use of response surface methodology (RSM)
A case study: fried gluten balls
Conclusions
References

To find similar publications, click on a keyword below:
Autumn 2004 : Woodhead Publishing Ltd : analytical methods : cereals : food crops : food science : fruit : plant genetics : plant science : vegetables

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