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Pesticides, veterinary and other residues in food

Edited by D Watson 
Woodhead Publishing  2004  



Hardback  704 pages  ISBN 9781855737341      £185.00

This wide-ranging text reviews the wealth of recent research on assessing and managing the risks from pesticide, veterinary and other chemical residues in food. After an introductory chapter on the key issues in food toxicology, Part 1 covers the assessment and management of risks, with individual chapters on genetic susceptibility to dietary carcinogens, good agricultural practice and HACCP systems, targeted and rapid methods for analysing residues in food and ways of assessing the mutagenicity of chemicals in food. Part 2 looks at veterinary residues, covering their safety, toxicology and detection. Part 3 examines pesticides, with chapters on surveillance and detection methods for fungicides and herbicides. In the final part, there are chapters summarising a wide range of other chemical residues in food, from xenostrogens/endocrine disruptors and dietary estrogens to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls.

Pesticides, veterinary and other residues in food will be a standard reference for all those concerned with ensuring the safety of food.

Contents

Introduction to food toxicology
S Omaye, University of Nevada, USA

Introduction: defining food toxicology
Types of toxicant: contaminants
Types of toxicant: naturally-occurring toxicants
Types of toxicant: food processing toxicants
Current issues: pathogens, genetic variability and antibiotic resistance
Current issues: novel foods and natural toxicants
Conclusions
References

PART 1: ASSESSING AND MANAGING RISKS

Genetic susceptibility to dietary carcinogens
S Peterson, J Lampe and D Eaton, University of Washington, USA

Introduction: diet and cancer
Dietary carcinogens and anticarcinogens: mycotoxins, aeterocyclic amines, aromatic hydrocarbons, N-nitroso compounds and phytochemicals
Genetic influences on carcinogen-metabolising enzymes
Evidence of diet-gene interactions
Summary and future trends
Sources of further information and advice
References

Assessing the mutagenicity of chemicals in food: the case of pesticides
Professor J Parry, University of Wales, UK
Introduction: mutagenicity test programmes
Criteria for the testing of pesticides
Selecting appropriate tests
Assessing dose-response relationships
Developing test methodologies
Conclusions
Acknowledgements
References and further reading
Appendix: the genotoxicity tests listed in EU Directive / Annex V

The impact of chemical residues: the case of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)
H Gallagher, I De Souza and C Regan, University College Dublin, Ireland
Introduction: risks posed by organohalogen compounds
Organohalogens as neurotoxins
Neurobehavioural consequences of PCB exposure
Molecular mechanisms of organohalogen-induced toxicity
Conclusion
References

Targeted and rapid methods in analysing residues in food
E Meulenberg, ELTI Support, The Netherlands; M Rhemrev-Boom, ResQ Lab, The Netherlands; and C Koopal, TNO Nutrition and Food Research, The Netherlands
Introduction
The principles of immunoassays
The use of immuno-affinity chromatography
Developing immunoassays to detect residues in food and water
Recent developments in immunoassays
Recent developments in immuno-affinity chromatography
The use of immunosensors in residue analysis
References

Good agricultural practice and HACCP systems in the management of pesticides and veterinary residues on the farm
R Early, Harper Adams University College, UK
Introduction
Safety issues in the food supply chain
Good agricultural practice
The Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) system
The HACCP study
Implementing and maintaining HACCP systems
Future trends. Conclusion
Acknowledgements
Sources of further information and advice
References and bibliography

PART 2: VETERINARY RESIDUES

Assessing the safety of veterinary drug residues
K Woodward, International Federation for Animal Health, Belgium

Introduction
Types of toxicity study
Setting maximum residue limits (MRLs) for veterinary drugs in the EU
Setting MRLs for particular foods in the EU
International regulation: the role of the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives and Contaminants (JECFA)
Conclusions
References

The toxicology of particular veterinary drug residues
K Woodward, International Federation for Animal Health, Belgium
Introduction
Griseofulvin
A-Lactam antibiotics: penicillins and cephalosporins
Macrolide antibiotics: spiramycin, tylosin and tilmicosin
Aminoglycosides
Fluoroquinolones
Sulfadimidine (sulfamethazine)
Carbadox and olaqindox
Furazolidine and related compounds
Chloramphenicol
Ivermectin and related compounds
Tranquillisers: xylazine and azerepone
Carazolol
Conclusions
References

The rapid detection of veterinary drug residues
N van Hoof, K de Wasch, H Hoppe, S Poelmans and H de Brabender, University of Ghent, Belgium
Introduction
Veterinary medicinal products
Methods for detecting residues
Validating detection methods
Rapid on-line confirmation of different veterinary residues
Future trends
Acknowledgements
References

New techniques for the rapid detection of growth promoters in farm animals
E Magner and M Jamal, University of Limerick, Ireland
Introduction: detecting the use of growth promoters
Existing detection techniques and their limitations
The use of immunosensors to detect growth promoters
Key issues in developing new biosensors
References

The rapid detection of coccidiostat drug residues in farm animals
M Tuomola and T Lövgren, University of Turku, Finland
Introduction
The use of anticoccidial drugs in poultry farming
The use of time-resolved fluoroimmunoassays (TR-FIAs)
Screening for coccidiostat residues by automated TR-FIAs
Future trends
Acknowledgement
References

PART 3: PESTICIDES

Surveillance for pesticide residues
C Winter, University of California, USA

Introduction
Pesticide regulation in the US
Sample collection, preparation and analysis
Results from pesticide surveillance programs
Interpreting the results of pesticide surveillance programs
Future trends
Sources of further information and advice
References

The rapid detection of pesticide residues
R Luxton and J Hart, University of the West of England, UK
Introduction
Detecting pesticides: physiochemical methods
Detecting pesticides: biological methods
The principles of biosensors
Developing low-cost biosensors
Using biosensors: pesticide residues in grain, fruit and vegetables
Future trends
Sources of further information and advice
Further reading

Detecting residues of urea and carbamate pesticides
Y Picó, G Font and J Mañes, University of Valencia, Spain
Introduction: key issues in detection
Sample preparation
Techniques for rapid screening of samples
Separation techniques
Detectors used in combination with separation techniques
Future trends
Sources of further information and advice
References

Detecting fungicide residues
M Shehan, H Berney and A Matthewson, University College Cork, Ireland
Introduction
Conventional techniques and immunoassays for detecting fungicide residues
Detecting fungicide residues using biosensors
Conclusions
Sources of further information and advice
Acknowledgements
References

Detecting herbicide residues
J Tadeo, C Sánchez-Brunete and B Albero, INIA, Spain
Introduction: key issues in detecting herbicide residues in food
Sample preparation
Analytical methods for particular herbicide residues
Levels of herbicide residues found in food
Sources of further information and advice
References

PART 4: OTHER CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD

Xenostrogens/endocrine disruptors
I Shaw, Institute of Environmental Science and Research; B Thompson and P Cressey, University of Canterbury, New Zealand

Introduction
Mechanism of action of xenoestrogens
Assays for xenoestogens
Measuring risks from different xenoestrogens
Health effects of xenoestrogens
Xenoestrogens in food and levels of dietary intake
Regulatory control of xenostrogens
Future trends
Sources of further information and advice
Acknowledgement
References

Dietary estogens
S Hendrich, Iowa State University, USA
Introduction: defining dietary estrogens
The range of dietary estrogens
Assessing the estrogenicty of dietary estrogens
Assessing the toxicity of dietary estrogens
The benefits of dietary estrogens: cancer prevention
The benefits of dietary estrogens: preventing osteoporosis and atherosclerosis
Dietary intakes of estrogens
Future trends and sources of further information and advice
References

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)
K Tamakawa, Sendai City Institute of Public Health, Japan
Introduction
Physical and chemical properties of PAHs
Health effects of PAHs
Analytical methods for PAHs
The occurrence of PAHs in food
Future trends
Sources of further information and advice
Acknowledgements
References

Dioxins and Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)
L Hoogenboom, RIKILT # Institute of Food Safety, The Netherlands
Introduction
Dioxins and PCBs
Assessing the toxic effects of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs
Analytical methods and current exposure levels
Brominated flame retardants
Abbreviations
References

Detecting organic contaminants in food: the case of fish
S Van Leeuwen, RIVO, The Netherlands
Introduction: the problem of organic contaminants
Sources of organic contaminants
Organic contaminants in fish
Analysing particular organic contaminants
Health issues for organic contaminants in fish
Future trends
Sources of further information and advice
References

Identifying allergenic proteins in food
E Clare Mills, J Jenkins and J Robertson, Institute of Food Research, UK; S Griffiths-Jones, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, UK; and P Shewry, Institute of Arable Crops Research, UK
Introduction: the nature of allergens and allergies
Types of plant food allergen and their characteristics
Identifying potentially allergenic proteins: bioinformatics
Identifying potentially allergenic proteins: resistance to pepinolysis and IgE reactivity
Future trends
Acknowledgements
References

Toxicological screening of paper and board packaging
A von Wright, University of Kuopio, Finland
Introduction
Regulatory background
Requirements for toxicological testing
Cycotoxicity tests. Genotoxicity tests
Applying tests to paper and board
Conclusions and future trends
References

Detecting metal contamination
R Montoro and D Velez, Instituto de Agronomica y Tecnologia de Alimentos (CSIC), Spain
Introduction
Methods of preparing food samples for analysis
Analytical methods for metal detection
Cadmium in food
Lead in food
Mercury in food
Arsenic in food
Future trends
References

Mycotoxins: detection and control
M. Miraglia, F. Debegnach and C. Brera, Italian National Institute for Health, Italy
Introduction
Types of mycotoxin found in food and animal feed
Risk management and control of mycotoxins in food
Sampling for mycotoxins
Standardisation of methods for detecting mycotoxins
The range of analytical methods for mycotoxins
Dealing with mycotoxins in developing countries
References

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Autumn 2004 : Woodhead Publishing Ltd : analytical methods : antibiotics : environmental impact : food safety : food science : mycology : pest control : risk assessment : toxicology

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