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Mycotoxins in food: Detection and control

Edited by M Magan and M Olsen 
Woodhead Publishing  2004  



Hardback  488 pages  ISBN 9781855737334      £170.00
Mycotoxins, toxic compounds produced by fungi, pose a significant contamination risk in both animal feed and foods for human consumption. With its distinguished editors and international team of contributors, Mycotoxins in food summarises the wealth of recent research on how to assess the risks from mycotoxins, detect particular mycotoxins and control them at differing stages in the supply chain.

Part 1 addresses risk assessment techniques, sampling methods, modelling and detection techniques used to measure the risk of mycotoxin contamination and the current regulations governing mycotoxin limits in food. Part 2 looks at how the risk of contamination may be controlled, with chapters on the use of HACCP systems and mycotoxin control at different stages in the supply chain. Two case studies demonstrate how these controls work for particular products. The final section details particular mycotoxins, from ochratoxin A and patulin to zearalenone and fumonisins.

Mycotoxins in food will be a standard reference for all those concerned with ensuring the safety of food.

About the editors

Professor Naresh Magan is Head of the Applied Mycology Group at Cranfield University, UK.

Dr Monica Olsen is a Senior Biologist at the National Food Administration in Sweden. Both are internationally recognised for their research on mycotoxins.

The contributors

T. Kuiper-Goodman, Health Canada
D Arcella, National Research Institute for Food and Nutrition, Italy
C Leclercq, National Research Institute for Food and Nutrition, Italy
H P van Egmond, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, The Netherlands
M A Jonker, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, The Netherlands
T B Whitaker, North Carolina State University, USA
P Patel, Leatherhead Food International, UK
P Nicholson, John Innes Centre, UK
D Aldred, Cranfield University, UK
M Olsen, Cranfield University, UK
N Magan, Cranfield University, UK
V Sanchis, University of Lleida, Spain
N Magan, Cranfield University, UK
R Shapira, University of Jerusalem, Israel
N Paster, University of Jerusalem, Israel
K Scudamore, KAS Mycotoxins, UK
P Battilani, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore and A Logrieco, Instituto di Scienze delle Produzioni Alimentari, Italy
A Pietri, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore and A Logrieco, Instituto di Scienze delle Produzioni Alimentari, Italy
H Pettersson, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden
J L Aish, Food Standards Agency, UK
E H Rippon, Food Standards Agency, UK
T Barlow, Food Standards Agency, UK
S Hattersley, Food Standards Agency, UK
G J A Speijers, RIVM, The Netherlands
A J Alldrick, Campden and Chorleywood Food Research Association
M Hajselova, Independent Cereals Technology Consultant
Dr L Jackson, National Center for Food Safety and Technology, USA
P M Scott, Health Canada
P. Jennings, Central Science Laboratory, UK
J. Köhl, Research Institute for Plant Protection, The Netherlands
N. Gosman, Research Institute for Plant Protection, The Netherlands


Contents

PART 1: MEASURING RISKS

Risk assessment and risk management of mycotoxins in food
T. Kuiper-Goodman, Health Canada

Introduction to risk assessment of mycotoxins
Hazard identification
Hazard characterisation
Exposure assessment
Risk characterisation and evaluation
Risk management of mycotoxins
Conclusion
References

Modelling exposure to mycotoxins
D Arcella and C Leclercq, National Research Institute for Food and Nutrition, Italy
Introduction: the quality and availability of mycotoxin sampling data
Deterministic methods for assessing mycotoxin exposure
Probabilistic modelling techniques for assessing mycotoxin exposure
Conclusions
References

Current regulations governing mycotoxin limits in food
H P van Egmond and M A Jonker, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, The Netherlands
Introduction: regulating mycotoxins in food
Factors affecting mycotoxin regulation in the food industry
Case study: international inquiry into mycotoxin regulations in 2002
Conclusion
Sources of further information and advice
Acknowledgement
References

Sampling for mycotoxins
T B Whitaker, North Carolina State University, USA
Introduction: mycotoxin sampling, definition and uncertainty
Methods of sample selection
Reducing random variation in the mycotoxin test procedure
Designing mycotoxin sampling plans
Conclusions
References

New techniques for mycotoxin analysis
P Patel, Leatherhead Food International, UK
Introduction: controlling and analysing mycotoxins
Commercial and alternative techniques for analysing mycotoxins
Applying new technologies to the analysis of mycotoxins
Conclusions
Acknowledgement
References

Rapid detection of mycotoxigenic fungi in plants
P Nicholson, John Innes Centre, UK
Introduction
Agriculturally significant mycotoxins and their associated fungal species
Conventional methods for identifying mycotoxigenic fungi in plants
Immunological and nucleic acid hybridisation assays for detecting mycotoxigenic fungi
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays for detecting mycotoxigenic fungi
Mycotoxin biosynthetic gene clustering for identifying mycotoxins
Combination assays and alternatives to PCR
Future trends
Sources of further information and advice
Acknowledgements
References

PART 2: CONTROLLING RISKS

The use of HACCP systems to control mycotoxins: the case of cereals
D Aldred, M Olsen and N Magan, Cranfield University, UK

Introduction: hazards and HACCP systems
Preparing a HACCP plan
Applying HACCP systems to mycotoxin control
Mycotoxin risks in wheat
Pre-harvest mycotoxin control strategies
Mycotoxin control during harvesting and post-harvest handling of wheat
Mycotoxin control during primary and secondary processing of wheat
References

Environmental conditions affecting mycotoxins
V Sanchis, University of Lleida, Spain and N Magan, Cranfield University, UK
Introduction
Key environmental conditions affecting growth of alternaria toxins and aflatoxin
Key environmental conditions affecting growth of fusarium toxins, ochratoxins and patulin
Conclusions
References

The control of mycotoxins during storage
R Shapira and N Paster, University of Jerusalem, Israel
Introduction: mycotoxin control
Fungi in stored grain: occurrence, damage and control
Factors affecting mycotoxin production during storage
Physical decontamination of mycotoxins: heat, adsorption and irradiation
Mycotoxin removal by solvent extraction
Chemical decontamination of mycotoxins
Biological decontamination of mycotoxins
Conclusions and future trends
References

The control of mycotoxins during secondary processing
K Scudamore, KAS Mycotoxins, UK
Introduction
Factors affecting mycotoxins during food processing
Controlling mycotoxins during cereals processing
Controlling mycotoxins during oil seed, beverage, dairy and other food processing
Future trends
Sources of further information and advice
References

Risk assessment and management in practice: grapes and wine
P Battilani and A Pietri, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore and A Logrieco, Instituto di Scienze delle Produzioni Alimentari, Italy
Introduction
Sources and concentration of ochratoxin (OTA)
Epidemiology of OTA producing fungi
Managing wine production: safety issues
Future trends
Sources of further information and advice
References

Controlling mycotoxins in animal feed
H Pettersson, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden
Introduction
Production of animal feed
The transfer of mycotoxins from feed to animal products
Techniques for controlling mycotoxins in animal feed
Future trends
Sources of further information and advice
References

PART 3: PARTICULAR MYCOTOXINS

Ochratoxin A
J L Aish, E H Rippon, T Barlow and S Hattersley, Food Standards Agency, UK

Introduction
Absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of ochratoxin A (OTA)
Biochemical effects of OTA
Toxic effects of OTA
Distribution, levels and the detection of OTA in food
Conclusions and future trends
Sources of further information
References

Patulin
G J A Speijers, RIVM, The Netherlands
Introduction
Absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and biochemical processes of patulin
Acute, short- and long-term toxicity of patulin
Genotoxicity, cytotoxicity, immunotoxicity and neurotoxicity of patulin
Regulation, detection and control of patulin in food
Conclusions
References

Zearalenone
A J Alldrick, Campden and Chorleywood Food Research Association and M Hajselova, Independent Cereals Technology Consultant
Introduction: chemical composition
Production of zearalenone in crops
Metabolism and experimental toxicology of zearalenone
Health impacts of zearalenone
The impact of food processing on zearalenone
Conclusions
Acknowledgement
References

Fumonisins
Dr L Jackson, National Center for Food Safety and Technology, USA
Introduction
The chemical and physical properties of fumonisins
Factors affecting fumonisin production by Fusarium sp
Toxicological effects of fumonisins
Fumonisins levels in foods: data collection and regulation
Methods of detecting and measuring fumonisins in animal feed and food
Control of fumonisin levels in food and feed
Future trends
References

Other mycotoxins
P M Scott, Health Canada
Introduction
Alternaria toxins: chemical structure, toxicity, sources in foods and associated human health risks
Fusarium toxins: chemical structure, toxicity, sources in foods and associated human health risks
Aspergillus toxins: chemical structure, toxicity, sources in foods and associated human health risks
Penicillium toxins: chemical structure, toxicity, sources in foods and associated human health risks
Nitropropionic acid from Arthrinium species: chemical structure, toxicity, sources in foods and associated human health risks
Fututre trends
References

PART 4: APPENDIX

Control of mycotoxins during raw material production
P Jennings, Central Science Laboratory, UK; J. Köhl and N. Gosman, Research Institute for Plant Protection, The Netherlands

Introduction: fusarium infection of cereals
Increasing plant resistance to infection
Using fungicides for disease control
Biological control of Fusarium species
Crop rotation, soil preparation and weed control
References

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Autumn 2004 : Woodhead Publishing Ltd : analytical methods : biological control : food safety : food science : microbiology : mycology : risk assessment : toxicology

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