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Detecting foreign bodies in food

Edited by M Edwards 
Woodhead Publishing  2004  



Hardback  328 pages  ISBN 9781855737297      £150.00

Foreign bodies are the biggest single source of customer complaints for many food manufacturers, retailers and enforcement authorities. Foreign bodies are any undesirable solid objects in food and range from items entirely unconnected with the food such as glass or metal fragments to those related to the food such as bones or fruit stalks. Detecting foreign bodies in food discusses ways of preventing and managing incidents involving foreign bodies and reviews the range of current methods available for the detection and control of foreign bodies, together with a number of new and developing technologies.

Part 1 addresses management issues, with chapters on identifying potential sources of foreign bodies, good manufacturing practice (GMP), the role of the hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) system and how best to manage incidents involving foreign bodies. The book also includes a chapter on the laboratory identification of foreign bodies. Part 2 examines methods for the detection and removal of foreign bodies. There are chapters on existing methods, including metal detection, magnets, optical sorting, X-ray systems and physical separation methods. Other chapters consider research on potential new technologies, including surface penetrating radar, microwave reflectance, nuclear magnetic resonance, electrical impedance and ultrasound.

Detecting foreign bodies in food will be a standard reference for all those concerned with ensuring the safety of food.

About the editor

Mike Edwards is Head of the Microscopy Section at the internationally renowned Campden and Chorleywood Food Research Association.

The contributors

R A Marsh, RHM Technology, UK
R E Angold, RHM Technology, UK
R Gaze, Campden and Chorleywood Food Research Association, UK
A Campbell, Campden and Chorleywood Food Research Association, UK
T Hines, Leatherhead Food International, UK
J P Craig, Thermo Goring Kerr, UK
E Apoussidis, Eriez Magnetics Europe, UK
I Wells, Eriez Magnetics Europe, UK
S C Bee, Sortex Ltd, UK
M J Honeywood, Sortex Ltd, UK
G Domenech, Polytechnic University of Cartagena, Spain
R Benjamin, University of Bristol, UK
B Hills, Institute of Food Research, UK
U-K Barr, SIK, Sweden
H Merkel, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden
R Dowdeswell, Kaiku Ltd, UK
O A Basir, University of Waterloo, Canada
B Zhao, University of Waterloo, Canada
G S Mittal, University of Guelph, Canada
B G Batchelor, University of Cardiff, UK
E R Davies, Royal Holloway University of London, UK
M Graves, Spectral Fusion Technologies Ltd, UK
R O'Connell, Russell Finex Ltd, UK


Contents

Part 1 Management issues

Identifying potential sources of foreign bodies in the supply chain
R A Marsh and R E Angold, RHM Technology, UK

Introduction
Sources of contamination in the food chain
The role of the manufacturer
Concluding comments
Sources of further information and advice

GMP, HACCP and the prevention of foreign bodies
R Gaze and A Campbell, Campden and Chorleywood Food Research Association, UK
Introduction
Sources of contamination in the food chain
The role of the manufacturer
Concluding comments
Sources of further information and advice

Identifying potential sources of foreign bodies in the supply chain
R A Marsh and R E Angold, RHM Technology, UK
Introduction
The role of good manufacturing practice (GMP) and prerequisite programmes
The role of the hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) system
Future trends
References

Managing incidents involving foreign bodies
T Hines, Leatherhead Food International, UK
Introduction: managing consumers, manufacturers and retailers
The crisis management team
The crisis management plan
Managing internal and external communications
Successful crisis management
Categories of consumer complaints
Conclusions
Sources of further information and advice
References and notes
Part 2 Detection and identification

Metal detection
J P Craig, Thermo Goring Kerr, UK

Introduction and the history of metal detection
Types of detection systems
The balanced coil system
Factors affecting the application of metal detection systems
Operational and quality control procedures
Future trends and conclusions

Magnets
E Apoussidis and I Wells, Eriez Magnetics Europe, UK
Introduction: magnetic separators and the principles of magnetism
Methods of producing magnetic fields: permanent magnets and electromagnets
Safety and environmental issues
Types of magnetic separator used in the food industry
Factors affecting the use of magnets in food processing
Examples of magnet use for particular foods
Advantages and disadvantages of using magnets
Future trends
Sources of further information

Optical sorting systems
S C Bee and M J Honeywood, Sortex Ltd, UK
Introduction
The principal components of optical sorting systems
Inspection systems: selection of wavelength bands, filters and illumination
The product feeding, ejection, cleaning and dust extraction systems
The electronic processing systems in sorting machines
Strengths and weaknesses of colour sorting
Future trends
Sources of further information

Applying optical systems
G Domenech, Polytechnic University of Cartagena, Spain
Introduction: foreign bodies in fruits and vegetables
Developing sorting systems for the removal of foreign bodies
Foreign body detection in the processing of olives and potatoes
Future trends
Sources of further information and advice
References

Microwave reflectance
R Benjamin, University of Bristol, UK
Introduction
Microwave imaging techniques
Microwave inspection of food products
Strengths and weaknesses of microwave sensors
References

Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging
B Hills, Institute of Food Research, UK
Introduction
Principles of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
The use of NMR and MRI techniques in food processing
Factors affecting the development of low-cost on-line MRI foreign body sensors
Future trends
Sources of further information
References

Surface penetrating radar
U-K Barr, SIK and H Merkel, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden
Introduction
Principles of surface penetrating radar
Detecting foreign bodies using microwaves
Setting up radar systems in food processing
Strengths and weaknesses of the radar method
Future trends
Sources of further information and advice
References

Electrical impedance
R Dowdeswell, Kaiku Ltd, UK
Introduction: measuring the electrical properties of materials
Capacitance, resistance and impedance based systems
Conclusion and future trends
Sources of further information
References

Ultrasound
O A Basir and B Zhao, University of Waterloo and G S Mittal, University of Guelph, Canada
Introduction
Principles of ultrasound
Types of ultrasonic transducer
Ultrasound signal processing to detect foreign bodies
The use of ultrasound techniques in food processing
Conclusions and future trends
References

Using X-rays to detect foreign bodies
B G Batchelor, University of Cardiff, E R Davies, Royal Holloway University of London and M Graves, Spectral Fusion Technologies Ltd, UK
Introduction: principles of x-ray systems
Single axis x-ray systems
Dual axis x-ray systems
Dual energy x-ray imaging
Using x-ray systems in practice
References
Appendix: factors affecting system performance

Separation systems
R O'Connell, Russell Finex Ltd, UK
Introduction: the need for separation systems
The location and design of separation systems
Traditional types of separation equipment
Innovative types of separation equipment: sieves
Innovative types of separation equipment: filters
Future trends
Sources of further information
References

Identifying foreign bodies
M Edwards, Campden and Chorleywood Food Research Association, UK
Definition and sources of foreign bodies
Approaches to foreign body identification
Foreign bodies of biological origin: identification and testing
Foreign bodies of non-biological origin: identification and testing
Effects of food processing on foreign bodies and future trends

To find similar publications, click on a keyword below:
Autumn 2004 : Woodhead Publishing Ltd : analytical methods : food safety : food science : process engineering

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