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Green composites: Polymer composites and the environment

Caroline Baillie 
Woodhead Publishing  September 2004  



Hardback  320 pages  ISBN 9781855737396      £155.00
There is an increasing movement of scientists and engineers who are dedicated to minimising the environmental impact of polymer composite production. Life cycle assessment is of paramount importance at every stage of a product's life, from initial synthesis through to final disposal and a sustainable society needs environmentally safe materials and processing methods. With an internationally recognised team of contributors, Green Composites examines fibre reinforced polymer composite production and explains how environmental footprints can be diminished at every stage of the life cycle.

The introductory chapters look at why we should consider green composites, their design and life cycle assessment. The properties of natural fibre sources such as cellulose and wood are then discussed. Chapter 6 examines recyclable synthetic fibre-thermoplastic composites as an alternative solution and polymers derived from natural sources are covered in Chapter 7. The factors that influence the properties of these natural composites and natural fibre thermoplastic composites are detailed in Chapters 8 and 9. The final four chapters consider clean processing, applications, recycling, degradation and reprocessing.

Green composites is an essential guide for agricultural crop producers, government agricultural departments, automotive companies, composite producers and material scientists all dedicated to the promotion and practice of eco-friendly materials and production methods.

About the author

Caroline Baillie is the Dupont Canada Chair of Engineering Education Research and Development at Queen's University, Ontario. Her research interests focus on natural sustainable composites and biomimicry and the development of engineering-based solutions for environmental and social problems. She has contributed to over 100 publications in materials science and education and has authored four books and edited two special editions on natural fibre composites. >

The contributors

C Rose, University of Brighton, UK
R Murphy, Imperial College London, UK
T Nishino, Kobe University, Japan
P Peltola, Tampere University of Technology, Finland
R A Shanks, RMIT University, Australia
D Plackett, Danish Polymer Centre, Denmark
S H Aziz, University of Bath, UK
M P Ansell, University of Bath, UK
M Sain, University of Toronto, Canada
S Panthapulakkal, University of Toronto, Canada
N Tucker, University of Warwick, UK
M Hughes, University of Wales, UK
A Hodzic, James Cook University, Australia
J C Arnold, Swansea University, UK



Contents

Why green composites? An introduction
C Baillie, Queens University, Canada

Introduction
An environmental footprint and life cycle assessment (LCA)
Drivers for change
The structure of this book: a life cycle approach

Designing green composites: traditional and future views
C Rose, University of Brighton, UK

Introduction: design thinking
The three principles of development and the value system
The big challenge: the future of material consumption, utilisation and innovation
The use of composite materials through the ages: design, form and structure
Sources of further information

Life cycle assessment (LCA)
R Murphy, Imperial College London, UK

Introduction
Life cycle assessment: methodology
LCAs of composite materials
Future trends making use of LCA
Conclusions
Sources of further information
Acknowledgement
References

Natural fibre sources
T Nishino, Kobe University, Japan

Introduction
The microstructure of natural plant fibres
The crystal structure of celluloses
The crystal modulus of natural fibres
The mechanical properties of cellulose microfibrils and macrofibrils
Natural fibre/sustainable polymer composites
Future trends
References

Alternative fibre sources: paper and wood fibres as reinforcement
P Peltola, Tampere University of Technology, Finland

Introduction and definitions
Wood fibres: structure, properties, making pulp and paper fibres
Recycling of paper
Wood and plastic composites and the theory of fibre reinforcement
Composites made of wood or wood fibre and plastics
Acknowledgement
References

Alternative solutions: recyclable synthetic fibre-thermoplastic composites
R A Shanks, RMIT University, Australia

Introduction and definitions
Green composites and the structure and function of composites
Natural material sources: reconstitution, thermoplastic polymers and the effect of water
Synthetic recyclable composites
Processing innovations and mineral filled composites
Properties of single polymer fibre-matrix composites
Future trends
Sources of further information and advice
Acknowledgments
References

Natural polymer sources
D Plackett, Danish Polymer Centre, Denmark

Introduction: biocomposites and biodegradable polymers
Polylactides: poly-lactic acid (PLA) synthesis, properties, biodegradation, processing and applications
Polyalkanoates: polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) synthesis, properties, processing, biodegradation and applications
Starch-based polymers: properties, biodegradation, processing and applications
Bio-based composites: properties, processing, characterisation, modification, biodegradation and reinforcement
Future trends
Sources of further information
References

Optimizing the properties of green composites
S H Aziz and M P Ansell, University of Bath, UK

Introduction
Thermosetting matrices versus thermoplastic matrices: a comparison
Selecting natural fibres for composites: stress transfer and physical characteristics
Case study: natural fibre composites with thermosetting resin matrices
Mechanical properties of composites as a function of design
Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) of long fibre composites
Environmental stability of natural fibre composites
Discussion and conclusions
Sources of further information and advice
Acknowledgements
References

Green Fibre Thermoplastic Composites
M Sain and S Panthapulakkal, University of Toronto, Canada

Introduction: biofibre production
Green fibres for composite production
Thermoplastics for natural fibre composites
High performance fibres: thermal, chemical and mechanical treatments
Processing of natural fibre filled composites
The performance and durability of natural fibres
Environmental benefits of using natural fibre-reinforced thermoplastics
Future trends
References

Clean production
N Tucker, University of Warwick, UK

Introduction: clean processing
Energy saving in the manufacture and production of composites
Limiting the environmental impact of processing
The use of additives
End-of-life disposal strategies
Future trends
References

Applications
M Hughes, University of Wales, UK

Introduction and definitions
Historical applications of green composites
Contemporary applications of green composites
Future trends
Sources of further information and advice
Conclusions
References

Extraction for re-use: recycling and degradation of composites
A Hodzic, James Cook University, Australia

Introduction
Recycling of polymers and composites
Recycling of thermoplastic composites
Recycling of thermosetting composites
Degradation of polymers: UV light and biodegradation
Recycling of composites in the automotive industry
Utilising green composites and incinerating polymers
Conclusions and future trends
References

Reprocessing
J C Arnold, Swansea University, UK

Introduction
Management of waste plastics and composites
Methods of sorting and separating plastics and polymers
Methods of recycling plastics
Future trends
Sources of further information
References
To find similar publications, click on a keyword below:
Autumn 2004 : Woodhead Publishing Ltd : biocomposites : biodegradation : bioplastics : bioproducts : cellulose : environmental impact : fibre : paper & paper pulp : waste treatment

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