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Fast Pyrolysis of Biomass: A Handbook Volume 2

Edited by AV Bridgwater 
CPL Press  2002 Reprinted 2008  



Hardcover  432pp  ISBN 1872691471      £96.00
Reflecting the continuing demand this book has now been reprinted and is available from May 2008. vol 1 has also been reprinted. These books contain the full original text and are available in the original hardback format as 'Print-on-Demand'.

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Fast Pyrolysis of Biomass volume 3

Fast Pyrolysis of Biomass volume 1

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Fast Pyrolysis of Biomass volume Sets

The most comprehensive and up-to-date publication on this subject is Science in Thermal and Chemical Biomass Conversion

The most recent information is available on CD-ROM: Success & Visions for Bioenergy: Thermal processing of biomass for bioenergy, biofuels and bioproducts


Volume 2

Preface

The Fast Pyrolysis Handbook Volume 2 is an edited version of the final report of the European Commission and IEA Bioenergy sponsored Pyrolysis Network that officially finished in 2001. It provides a companion volume to the first handbook published in 1999 and it is again intended that this will provide a useful guide both to newcomers to the subject area as well as those already involved in research, development and implementation. A significant feature of this second volume is the greater attention paid to addressing commercial issues such as marketability, transportation and safety.

The benefits from the PyNe Network have been in drawing together the hard core of scientists and engineers involved in developing fast pyrolysis from Europe and North America on a regular basis to share information and help develop the technology. This small group has, however, not been the only beneficiaries as all the meetings have been open to guests and visitors and some meetings have attracted up to 80 participants, all of whom have both contributed to and/or benefited from the activities of the Network.

PyNe is continuing for a third term, again sponsored by the European Commission and IEA Bioenergy and again as a firmly integrated activity between the two organisations. It is now associated with an analogous network on gasification, GasNet, and the two networks will work closely together as ThermoNet to maximise the benefits from integration.

PyNe has been a genuine team effort with contributions by all the members and guests throughout the life of the Network, but the Subject Group leaders in particular have taken the burden of preparing the reports and contributions that make up a significant part of this second volume (Chapters 1 to 8). Other organisations have also contributed to the output of PyNe notably the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in the USA who co-sponsored the report by Jim Diebold (Chapter 11), Natural Resources Canada who funded the report on levoglucosan by Desmond Radlein (Chapter 10), and the Institute for Wood Chemistry in Hamburg who redrew many of the figures in the report by Galina Dobele (Chapter 9). As part of the development of the Subject Groups, which formed the main technical contributions of this Network, most Subject Group Leaders commissioned special reports from experts in different areas as a significant contribution to furthering the science and technology (Chapters 11, 12 and 13), while the Science Subject Group organised a number of very successful workshops resulting in the contributions of Chapters 14 to 18.

Fast pyrolysis is a high temperature process in which biomass is rapidly heated in the absence of oxygen. As a result it decomposes to generate mostly vapours and aerosols and some charcoal. After cooling and condensation, a dark brown mobile liquid is formed which has a heating value about half that of conventional fuel oil. While it is related to the traditional pyrolysis processes for making charcoal, fast pyrolysis is an advanced process that is carefully controlled to give high yields of liquid.

The essential features of a fast pyrolysis process are: very high heating and heat transfer rates, which usually requires a finely ground biomass feed; carefully controlled pyrolysis reaction temperature of around 500C in the vapour phase, with short vapour residence times of typically less than 2 seconds; rapid cooling of the pyrolysis vapours to give the main product - bio-oil.

Volume 2 - Table of Contents

Chapter 1. The Status of Biomass Fast Pyrolysis A. V. Bridgwater, S. Czernik, J. Piskorz 1 Chapter 2. Analysis, Characterisation and Test Methods of Fast Pyrolysis Liquids
A. Oasmaa, D. Meier

Chapter 3. Pyrolysis Liquids Analyses - The Results of IEA-EU Round Robin
A. Oasmaa, D. Meier

Chapter 4. Summary of the Analytical Methods Available for Chemical Analysis of Pyrolysis Liquids
D. Meier

Chapter 5. Environment, Health and Safety Aspects Related to Fast Pyrolysis Oils - A Guideline to Notify a New Substance
P. Girard, C. Diez

Chapter 6. Implementation Subject Group Report
M. Lauer

Chapter 7. Fundamentals, Mechanisms and Science of Pyrolysis
J. Piskorz

Chapter 8. Review of Methods for Upgrading Biomass-derived Fast Pyrolysis Oils
S. Czernik, R. Maggi, G.V.C. Peacocke

Chapter 9. Production, Properties and Use of Wood Pyrolysis Oil - A brief review of the work carried out at research and production centres of the former USSR from 1960 to 1990
G. Dobele

Chapter 10. Study of Levoglucosan Production - A Review
D. Radlein

Chapter 11. A Review of the Chemical and Physical Mechanisms of the Storage Stability of Fast Pyrolysis Bio-oils
J.P. Diebold

Chapter 12. Transport, Handling and Storage of Fast Pyrolysis Liquids
G.V.C. Peacocke

Chapter 13. Evaluation of Bio-Energy Projects
P. Thornley, E. Wright

Chapter 14. Radiant Flash Pyrolysis of Cellulose - Evidence for the Formation of Short Life Time Liquid Species and Experimental Determination of Mass Balances
O. Boutin, J. Lédé

Chapter 15. Formulation and Application of Biomass Pyrolysis Models for Process Design and Development
C. Di Blasi

Chapter 16. Pyrolysis of Cellulose - From Oligosaccharides to Synthesis Gas
J. Piskorz, D. Radlein, P. Majerski, D.S. Scott

Chapter 17. Gas Production from Catalytic Pyrolysis of Biomass
L. Garcia, M.L. Salvador, R. Bilbao, J. Arauzo

Chapter 18. Fractional Vacuum Pyrolysis of Biomass and Separation of Phenolic Compounds by Steam Distillation
J Népo Murwanashyaka, H Pakdel and C Roy

Author index
Subject index

This handbook is an edited and updated version of the final report of the IEA Bioenergy sponsored Pyrolysis Activity - PYRA - that officially finished in 1998 and accomplished many valuable contributions to the science and technology of fast pyrolysis. It is intended that this handbook will provide a useful guide both to newcomers to the subject area as well as those already involved in research, development and implementation.

The IEA Bioenergy Pyrolysis Task is continuing this work as a collaborative project with the European Commission network on fast pyrolysis of biomass which is now known as PyNe. The European Network was first formed in 1995 as an EC sponsored project in the AIR Programme (AIR3-CT94-1857). At the end of the three-year lives of the Networks in 1997, both sponsoring organisations recognised the benefits from their integration. This led to the present PyNe Network, which is co-sponsored by the European Commission FAIR Programme (FAIR-CT97-3409) and IEA Bioenergy, and which itself is sponsoring the publication of this book as a contribution to the technology.

Tony Bridgwater, Co-ordinator of PyNe

CONTENTS

Chapter 1. An Introduction to Fast Pyrolysis of Biomass for Fuels and Chemicals A.V. Bridgwater
Chapter 2. Overview of Fast Pyrolysis of Biomass for the Production of Liquid Fuels J.P. Diebold, A.V. Bridgwater
Chapter 3. IEA Pyrolysis Fundamentals Review (Active Research Groups Appended) J. Piskorz, G.V.C. Peacocke, A.V. Bridgwater
Chapter 4. The Nature and Properties of Intermediate and Unvaporized Biomass Pyrolysis Materials J. Lédé, J.P. Diebold, G.V.C. Peacocke, J. Piskorz 51
Chapter 5. Storage and Handling of Flash Pyrolysis Oil J. Leech, A. Webster
Chapter 6. Testing Standard Methods A. Oasmaa
Chapter 7. Properties of Fast Pyrolysis Liquids: Status of Test Methods D. Meier, A. Oasmaa, G.V.C. Peacock
Chapter 8. New Methods for Chemical and Physical Characterization and Round Robin Testing D. Meier
Chapter 9. Proposed Specifications for Various Grades of Pyrolysis Oils J.P. Diebold, T.A. Milne, S. Czernik, A. Oasmaa, A.V. BridgwaterA. Cuevas, S. Gust, D. Huffman, J. Piskorz
Chapter 10. Environment, Health and Safety S. Czernik
Chapter 11. Determination of Biodegradation Rates of Bio-Oil by Respirometry J. Piskorz, D. Radlein
Chapter 12. A Review of the Toxicity of Biomass Pyrolysis Liquids Formed at Low Temperatures J.P. Diebold
Chapter 13. The Production of Chemicals from Fast Pyrolysis Bio-Oils D. Radlein

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CPL Press : European Commission : International Energy Agency : PyNe : Spring 2002 : agricultural residues : bio-oil : bioenergy : biofuels : biomass : biotechnology : environmental science : fast pyrolysis : flash pyrolysis : handbooks : liquid biofuels : organic waste : pyrolysis : renewable energy : synthesis, thermochemical : waste treatment

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