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Air Pollution and Health in Rapidly Developing Countries

Edited by Frank Murray and Gordon McGranahan 
Earthscan  2003  



Softcover  256 pages  ISBN 9781853839856      £38.00
In developing countries the price of rapid growth is all too often noxious airborne pollution, which annually contributes to a disturbing number of avoidable deaths. In recent decades, however, there has been considerable progress in the epidemiology of air pollution, significant changes in international air pollution guidelines, and the emergence of more systematic approaches to air pollution control. While many of these advances have originated in affluent countries, there have been major developments in other parts of the world.

In this book, a distinguished cast of leading researchers in both the scientific and policy dimensions of air pollution and health have synthesized the recent developments in the field and their relevance for public health in developing countries. The authors review studies from a wide range of Asian, African and Latin American countries and contrast the findings with those from Europe and North America. They also describe various tools and systems for air pollution management and emphasize approaches that can be used when data are scarce.

With a clear focus on the scientific and technical aspects of air pollution and health, this book is essential reading for pollution and health policy-makers, researchers and others concerned with air pollution and health in developing countries.

CONTENTS

List of Figures

List of Tables

List of Contributors

Preface

List of Acronyms and Abbreviations

Acknowledgements

Introduction: Air Pollution and Health in Developing Countries - The Context
Frank Murray and Gordon McGranahan

Objectives
Air Pollution in its Historical Context
Types and Sources of Air Pollution
Policies and Development of Standards
Summary of the Contents

1 Health-damaging Air Pollution: A Matter of Scale
Kirk R Smith and Sameer Akbar

Introduction
Risk Transition
Environmental Pathway Analysis
Exposure Assessment
Major Cross-scale Effects
Concluding Remarks

2 Air Pollution and Health - Studies in the Americas and Europe
Morton Lippmann

Introduction
Health Effects of Ozone (O3)
Health Effects of Particulate Matter (PM)
Health Effects of Diesel Engine Exhaust
Discussion and Conclusions

3 Air Pollution and Health in Developing Countries: A Review of Epidemiological Evidence
Isabelle Romieu and Mauricio Hernandez-Avila

Introduction
Global Concentration Patterns of Outdoor Air Pollution
Health Effects of Particulate Matter and Sulphur Dioxide (SO2)
Health Effects of Ozone
Health Effects of Nitrogen Dioxide
Health Effects of Carbon Monoxide
Health Effects of Lead
Conclusions

4 Local Ambient Air Quality Management
Dietrich Schwela

Introduction
Use of WHO Guidelines for Air Quality in Local Air Quality Management
Enforcement of Air Quality Standards: Clean Air Implementation Plans
Urban Air Quality Management in Europe

5 Rapid Assessment of Air Pollution and Health: Making Optimal Use of Data for Policy- and Decision-making
Yasmin von Schirnding

Introduction
Rapid Epidemiological Assessment
Individual Level Assessment Methods
Group Level Assessment Methods
Risk Assessment
Collection of Individual and Aggregate Level Data
Conclusions

6 A Systematic Approach to Air Quality Management: Examples from the URBAIR Cities
Steinar Larssen, Huib Jansen, Xander A Olsthoorn, Jitendra J Shah, Knut Aarhus and Fan Changzho

Urban Air Quality Management and the URBAIR Project
Physical Assessment
Cost-benefit Analysis of Selected Measures
Action Plans
Policy Instruments and Plans for Air Quality Improvement in URBAIR Cities
Example: The Guangzhou Action Plan for Improved Air Quality
Conclusions

7 Indoor Air Pollution
Sumeet Saksena and Kirk R Smith

Introduction
Concentrations and Exposures
Health Effects
Health Impacts
Knowledge Gaps and Necessary Research
Interventions
Conclusions

8 Vehicle Emissions and Health in Developing Countries
Michael P Walsh

Background and Introduction
Vehicle Population Trends and Characteristics
Adverse Health Effects Resulting from Vehicle Emissions
Strategies to Reduce Vehicle Emissions
Conclusions

9 Air Quality in Hong Kong and the Impact of Pollution on Health 1988-1997
Anthony Johnson Hedley, Chit-Ming Wong, Tai-Hing Lam, Sarah Morag McGhee and Stefan Ma

Background
Methods
Findings
Discussion
Conclusions

10 Air Pollution and its Impacts on Health in Santiago, Chile
Bart D Ostro

Introduction
Epidemiological Overview
Studies in Santiago and their Comparability with Other Studies
Estimating the Quantitative Health Impacts
Quantitative Results
Control Strategies

11 Air Quality and Health in Greater Johannesburg
Angela Mathee and Yasmin von Schirnding

Introduction
Urbanization
Industrialization
Transport and Traffic
Programmes and Policies

Index

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